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Part 35 Brachiopods Christian C. Emig Fig 35.0 Glottidia audebarti, a species from Pacific Costa Rica (Photo: Christian C. Emig) C.C. Emig Centre d’Océanologie, Rue de la Batterie-des-Lions, F-13007 Marseille (France). Present address: 20, Rue Chaix, 13007 Marseille (France). e-mail: brachnet@aliceadsl.fr I.S. Wehrtmann, J. Cortés (eds.) Marine Biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America, 417 © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009 a

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  • Part 35Brachiopods

    Christian C. Emig

    Fig 35.0 Glottidia audebarti, a species from Pacific Costa Rica (Photo: Christian C. Emig)

    C.C. EmigCentre d’Océanologie, Rue de la Batterie-des-Lions, F-13007 Marseille (France).Present address: 20, Rue Chaix, 13007 Marseille (France).e-mail: [email protected]

    I.S. Wehrtmann, J. Cortés (eds.) Marine Biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America, 417© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

    a

    MarcoZone de texte Emig C.C., 2008. Part IV. Taxonomic groups. Chapter 35 Brachiopods. In: Marine Biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Wehrtmann I. S. & J. Cortés (eds.). Monographiae Biologicae, 86, 417-420, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 538 p.

  • xx C.C. Emig

    Abstract Ten brachiopod species have been recorded in the waters of Central America, and eight of these species occur on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Among the Linguliformea, two Glottidia species, G. albida, and G. audebarti, live in the Golfo de Nicoya (Costa Rica). Two discinid species occur in the Pacific waters, viz. Discradisca strigata and the deep-sea Pelagodicus atlanticus. Among the Rhynchonelliformea, all recorded species are living in the deep-sea, in the bathyal and abyssal zones: Neorhynchia strebeli, Liothyrella clarkeana, L. moseleyi, Macandrevia diamantina, M. americana, and M. craniella.

    Introduction

    Brachiopods, or lamp shells, are an exclusively marine group of lophophorate ani-mals. They are sessile benthic suspension-feeders (Emig 1997a, b), bilaterally sym-metrical, and they are solitary coelomates. They are enclosed within a shell formed by a dorsal and a ventral valve, and fixed to or into the substrate by a pedicle, lack-ing in some taxa, and cemented to the substratum by one of the valves. The pedicle has the capacity to adjust the position of the organism in relation to its surroundings (Richardson 1997; Emig 1997a). The lophophore of brachiopods varies in com-plexity, and is usually supported by the brachidium (Emig 1992). Larvae are either planktotrophic or non-planktotrophic.

    Following the classification established in the “Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology” (Kaesler 2000–2007), brachiopods are divided into three subphyla: the Linguliformea, the Craniiformea, and the Rhynchonelliformea. There are, at least, 114 extant brachiopod genera represented by 401 species. Representatives are found from littoral waters (generally subtidal) to the abyssal zone, and are generally epifaunal on hard substrata; only the lingulides are exclusively infaunal in soft sub-strata. In the waters of Central America, ten brachiopod species belonging to five genera have been recorded, only one species of which is known for the Caribbean (Species List 35.1).

    Summary and Comments

    Glottidia albida and G. audebarti are the only brachiopod species recorded in the Golfo de Nicoya (see Species List 35.2). Both species have been redescribed by Emig (1983) and by Emig and Vargas (1990), respectively. They also occur on the Pacific coast of Mexico with G. palmeri. G. audebarti has also been sampled on the Panama and Ecuador coasts. In the Caribbean and Atlantic waters another Glottidia species, G. pyramidata, occurs (Emig 1983). The genus Glottidia is restricted to the American coasts, while in the other tropical and temperate areas the genus Lingula occurs (Emig 1997a). Two discinid species occur in Central America: D. strigata has been studied in the intertidal zone of Panama (La Barbera 1985) and P. atlanticus off the Mexican and Peruvian coasts (Zezina 1961)

    Wehrtmanind 7/3/200841

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  • xxx C.C. Emig

    N. strebeli (= N. profunda) has been collected off Isla del Coco at a depth of 2,150 m on muddy bottom (type-locality, Species List 35.2), and SW Galapagos at 3,800 m, as well as off California and in the SE Pacific (Dall 1908; Cooper 1972) in the bathyal and abyssal zones (2,000–4,500 m depth), and in the Antarctic where this species occurs from the immediate subtidal to a depth of several hundred meters (Barnes & Peck 1997).

    L. clarkeana has only been recorded from the two localities cited above, off the Gulf of Panama: off Isla del Coco at 2,150 m on muddy bottom (type-locality) and SW Galapagos at 3,724 m (Dall 1908). L. moseleyi is also a poorly known species collected near Isla del Coco at 250 m and in several other Pacific locations (from about 250–4,000 m deep). This species occurs also in the Atlantic off Martinique, at a depth of 310 m in the Caribbean (Species List 35.1), and in the Indian Ocean (type-locality is west of Kerguelen Island at 384 m) (Dall 1908).

    Two Macandrevia species occur along the west coast of North and South America, extending from San Diego (California) to the Antarctic (Dall 1908, 1921; Cooper 1972, 1973, 1982): M. diamantina (= Notorygmia abyssa), off Isla del Coco at a depth of 2,150 m on muddy bottom (type-locality), and off the west coast of Colombia at a depth of 3,250–3,260 m. Depth distribution is known until 4,600 m. This species commonly has homeomorphic features with N. strebeli. The other species, M. americana (= M. vanhoeffeni, = M. lata) extends off Isla del Coco at a depth of 3,000 m on muddy bottom. The bathymetric range of this species is between 100 and 4,000 m.

    The third species, M. craniella, has only been recorded off Isla del Coco at a depth of 2,150 m on muddy bottom (type-locality) in the Gulf of Panama (Dall 1908).

    References

    Barnes DKA Peck LS (1997) An Antarctic shelf population of the deep-sea, Pacific brachiopod Neorhynchia strebeli. J Mar Biol Ass UK 77:399–407

    Cooper GA (1972) Homeomorphy in recent deep-sea brachiopods? Smithson Contr Paleobiol 11:1–25

    1. Cooper GA (1973) Vema’s Brachiopoda (Recent). Smithson Contr Paleobiol 17:1–51Cooper GA (1982) New Brachiopoda from the Southern hemisphere and Cryoptopora from

    Oregon (Recent). Smithson Contr Paleobiol 41:1–432. Dall WH (1908). Reports on the Mollusca and the Brachiopoda. Bull Mus Comp Zool Harvard

    Univ 43(6):205–4873. Dall WH (1921) Annotated list of the recent Brachiopoda in the collection of the United States

    National Museum, with descriptions of thirty-three new forms. Proc US Nat Mus 57(2314):261–377Emig CC (1983) Taxonomie du genre Glottidia (Brachiopodes Inarticulés). Bull Mus Nat Hist Nat

    Paris (Sér. 4) 5 (Sect.4) (n° 2):469–489Emig CC (1992) Functional disposition of the lophophore in living Brachiopoda. Lethaia 25:291–302Emig CC (1997a) Ecology of inarticulated brachiopods. Biogeography of inarticulated brachiopods.

    In: Kaesler RL (ed) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H, Revised, Brachiopoda, Vol. 1. Geol Soc Am and Univ. Kansas Press. Boulder, Colorado & Lawrence, Kansas, pp 473–502

    Emig CC (1997b) Les Lophophorates constituent-ils un embranchement? Bull Soc Zool Fr 122:279–288

    Wehrtmann_Ch35.indd 7

  • 4. Emig CC Vargas JA (1990) Notes on Glottidia audebarti (Broderip) (Brachiopoda, Lingulidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 38(2A):251–258

    Kaesler RL (ed) 2000–2007 Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H, Revised, Brachiopoda. Geol. Soc. Am. and Univ. Kansas Press, Boulder, Colorado/Lawrence, Kansas, Vol. 2-6

    5. Kowalevski M, Dryreson E, Marcot JD, Vargas JA, Flessa KW & Hallman DP (1997). Phenetic discrimination of biometric simpletons: paleobiological implications of morphospe-cies in the lingulide brachiopod Glottidia. Paleobiology 23:444–469

    6. La Barbera M (1985) Mechanisms of spatial competition of Discinisca strigata (Inarticulata: Brachiopoda) in the intertidal of Panama. Biol Bull 168:91–105

    7. Owen R (1835) Mémoire sur l’anatomie des Mollusques Brachiopodes (Cuv.) et plus spéciale-ment des Térébratules et Orbicules. Ann Sci Nat (2) 3:52–77

    Richardson J (1997) Ecology of articulated brachiopods. Biogeography of articulated brachiopods. In: Kaesler RL (ed) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H, Revised, Brachiopoda, Vol. 1. Geol Soc Am. and Univ. Kansas Press. Boulder, Colorado & Lawrence, Kansas, pp 441–472

    8. Zezina ON (1961) Distribution of the deepwater brachiopod Pelagodiscus atlanticus (King) (in Russian). Okeanologiya 5:354–358

    Specialists and Collections

    Information on Brachiopoda, including directories of the specialists and references, is available at http://paleopolis.rediris.es/BrachNet/ (or in the mirror sites at http://emig.free.fr/BrachNet/ and at http://www.marinespecies.org/brachiopoda/). Exceptthe present author on Lingulides, there is no specialist on the other extant brachiopods cited herein. Because most of the experts are retired, the directories at the web site [email protected] remain the best way to contact a specialist (webmaster is Christian C. Emig, email: [email protected] and [email protected]). The largest collection ofAmerican brachiopod specimens is located at the Smithsonian Institution,

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC (USA).

    Wehrtman

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