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  • MAURITANIAN ARABICCommunication and Culture Handbook

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  • PEACE CORPS

    LANGLIAtlE HANDBOOK SERIES

    Me series includes language materials in Belizean Creole, Gilbertese.Mauritanian Arabic, Setswana, Solomon Islands Pijin. and Tanzanian

    Swahili

    These Mauritanian Arabic materials were d( eloped undt r the auspicesof the Foreign Language Office of The Experiment in InternationalLiving's School for International Training.

    Project director :10(1 editor

    Assistant director and editorial assistant

    dMinistr.11 ive a' sist.rtlt

    Raymond C. Clark

    Arthur A. Burrows

    Susan McBean

    For further information. contact The Experiment Press, Brattleboro,Vermont 0:3301.

    Much of the classic calligraphy used decorate this book was takenfrom The Mu slim Mind by Chris WaddV

    The Experiment in International Living; Inc.. prepared this handbookthe U S Go eminent under AC NON Contract number 78-043-1037.

    The repr. Juction of any part of this handbook other than for suchpurposes as criticism, comment. news reporting, teaching, scholarship,:research. or other 'fair use" is subject to the prior written permissionof ACTION.

    197)

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  • MAURITANIAN ARABIC

    COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE HANDBOOK

    Writers Stephen HancheyTimothy P. Francis

    Artists

    Typists

    Field Tester and Nssistant Writer

    Consultants

    George Vasilatos, Pat Moran

    Georg( Vasilatos, Lisa Forrett

    Peg Clement

    Lance LindaburyMouldi Hadiji

    _Acknowledgements

    The writers would like to extend their grateful appreciation to thededicated volunteers ond staff of Peace Corps Mauritania for their sup-port and encouragement during the preparation of these materials. Wewould likt to mention in particular Gem Sternin and Carol Olsen ofl'c Mauritania. as well as Lee Jennings and Tanya George of PC/tVashinglon. whose experience and help have again proved invaluable.

    he staff ,)f. the Regional Training Resource Center in Dakar includingr. Gary Englebert and Boubacar Diallou helped facilitate our

    work.

    FincdlY our warmest appreciation to Voussouf ould Abdel Jelil.Alidellahi uld Mohammed Lehbib. Abdellahi Kerlin and other Mauritanianfrien k and colleagues in Nouakchott. Dakar, Rabat. and London whomade their time available as hosts. translators. and consultants.

    ,ut thL it generosity and kindness. this work would have been im-PC' 'bible.

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  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Preface To The Learner: Introduction to Language Learning viiIntroduction to the Languages of Mauritania xiiiThe Pronunciation of the Hassaniva Dialect xivThe Communication & Culture Handbook: Parts of a Typical Lesson xvii

    Lesson 1: Greetings .,Standard Arabic Greetings & Responses 10

    Lesson 2:

    Lesson 3:

    Lesson 4:

    Lesson 5.

    Continuing a ConversationNumbers 1-10

    1218

    Basic Personal Information 20Map of Mauritania 24Numbers 11-20 26

    Age. Marital Status & Family Information 28Days uf the Week 32Numbers 20-100 33

    Shopping: Inquiring About Av&ilabilitvNumbers 100-1.000

    3640

    Lesson 6- Shopping: Making a Request 44F runs and Vegetables 49

    Lesson 7: Jobs ind Occupations 52Namt.,, of Occupations 56Numbers 1.000-1.000.000 58

    Lesson 8: Talking About Duration & Learning Arabic 60Language Learning Vocabulary 65

    Lesson .:4 TnIking About & Learning Arabic 68Idioms and Useful Expressions 72

    Lesson 10: Making. Tea 74Verbs of Proce' and Function 79

    Lesson 11: Talking About Where You Live 80Names of Places & Landmarks 84Map cat Nouakchott 86

    Lesson 12: Taking a Taxi 88Prepositions for Locating 92

    Lesson 13: fhe Volunteer Role in Development 94Names N Term,' in Devel,pment 98

    )::\.!.

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  • Lesson 14: Telling Time 102Hours of The Clock 106Understanding Time in the Arab World 110

    Lesson 15: Future Appointments 112

    Lesson 16: Daily Activities 116

    Lesson 17: Describing Observations 122Colors 129

    Lesson 18: Hospitality and Courtesy 132

    Lesson 19: Learning About Islam 137Religious Vocabulary 140

    Lesson 20: Talking About Religion in the U.S. 142

    Lesson 21- Describing Past Events and Activities 148Grammar Note - The Past Tense 152

    Lesson 22: Describing Your Past 154School Subjects 159

    Lesson 23: Weather. Climate and Seasons 160

    Lesson 24: I'rip to Boutilimit 166Life in the Desert-Vocabulary 170

    Lesson 25: Parts of the Body 172Health & Symptoms of Illness 176

    Lesson 26: At the Tailor's 178

    Lesson 27: House & Basic Furnishings 184

    Lesson 28: Health Interview 190Health Glossary 194

    Lesson 29: Agricultural Talk 198Agricultural Glossary 202Name of Months 206

    Lesson 30: In the Field 208

    Appendix A: Hassaniya Proverbs 213

    Appendix B: Language Behavioral Objectives 215

    English-Hassa-qya Glossary 217

    *vi*

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  • Preface To The Learner

    An Introduction to Language Learning

    Congratulations to all of you who read this. First, con-gratulations for your acceptance into Peace Corps and second,congratulations for just performing a very complex act read-ing a language. Of course, the language is English and thathardly seems like such a major accomplishment; after all, prac-tically everybody you know can do it. For most of us, usingEnglish is like breathing, an involuntary activity, or if we con-sider it a skill, a skill that has become so natural to us that wehave taken for granted the fact that it represents the major in-tellectual achievement of our lifetimes.

    The point, of course, is not that the learning of English isin itself an especially significant accomplishment, but that thelearning of a language in either or both its spoken and writtenforms is the great accomplishment. By being born as humanbeings we may be programmed .to learn language just as we areprogrammed to walk on only two legs but despite our human in-heritance, learning a language still requires time and energy.We don't just happen to learn a language; we do have to workat it, and other people -- chiefly our parents, siblings andplaymates -- have to be willing to help.

    Although you may no longer have memories of your earlystruggles to learn English, you can still appreciate the com-plexity of the accomplishment by considering this: Assume forthe moment that you are about to siert a language training pro-gram that will occupy you 12-14 hours a day, 7 days a weekfor the next 3 to 5 years. without a break. At the end ofyour training program you will still not be able to understandradio programs of easily follow d conversation between twoadults and practical!; all books will still seem to be filled withundecipherable squiggles. In f Ict, your knowledge of the writ-ten language will be so minimal that you w ill now have to enrollin a formal school for a considerable length of time and evenafter several years of formal schooling you will still be develop-ing your language skills by learning new words, polishing yourwriting style and trying to read better. That is the sort oflanguage program you enrolled in when you began to learn yournative language, English.

    L)

    ...undecipherable sluilles..

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  • All this is not intended to frighten you about the languagelearning task that lies ahead because learning a second lan-guage is going to be easier. Most of you have already en-countered a second language and unless that encounter cameearly in your life while you were still very actively learningyour first language, the second encounter was an encounter ofa different kind. Some of you may have learned French orSpanish and learned it reasonably well in high school, whileothers have not had very successful experiences the secondtime around. Now, as an adult you are being asked to learn anew, second language. Learning a second language is no smalltask, but neither is it a matter of starting from scratch, as youdid when you learned English. So before you take your firststeps in your new language, we ask you to take the time to dotwo things: try to understand the nature of the task ahead ofyou and try to assess the personal strengths and weaknessesthat you bring with you as you start your assignment.

    What do you have to do to learn a new language? As youmight expect, the answers to this question are as numerous andvaried as people are and no two learners' strategies will be ex-actly the same. This is so important to remember, let's say itagain in a different way: we can make many generalizationsabout the way people learn language, but you are unique andyou can only learn in the way that suits you best, not in theway an idealized, generalized member of your species learns.

    We have already said that learning a second language isgoing to be easier. It is going to be faster, too, because youalready know a language and you will not have to re-inventone. To be sure, the language you are going to learn is verydifferent from English and you n ay wonder just how much helpyour English is going to be. It would be easier, for example,if there were more cognates such as between English and theGermanic or Romance languages, but you already know a lotabout languages and English in particular, and you can usethat knowledge. You already know, for example, that lan-guages have a two-part structure (subject and predicate) andyou already know a great deal about what you can and cannotcommunicate with languages. You know how to do things suchas re