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. What do you understand by teaching and learning at HE? .How do they differ from that of other levels of education?

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Teaching defined from different perspectives.y Idealists: Teaching as a process of transmitting/imparting knowledge y Pragmatists: Teaching as a process of facilitating individuals learning y Naturalists: Helping the individual develop the potentials s/he possesses Commonly: It can be understood as a process of facilitating individual s learning through motivation, coordination, guiding/directing the activities the learner performs and controlling/evaluating the learning results. It is a process of bringing about positive changes in a learner (Obanya, 1998).

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Learning seen from different perspectives in psychologyy Learning as a process of acquiring knowledge through the mental process. y It is developing the mental caliber of the individuals y Learning is a relatively permanent change/ modification of the behavior (acquisition of knowledge, the development of skills and formation of value systems) of the learner as a result of practice. y N.B It is an integral/fundamental process which occurs in the learners. It is a relatively permanent change in the behavior of the person/learning.3

Stages in how learning takes placey The motivation stage: . Receiving a stimulus to learn . Selecting information from the env t by the sensory receptors y The acquisition stage: . Information processing, retrieving/recovering and exploiting (from the short-term memory to the long-term memory) y The performance stage: . Learners use, apply what they have acquired (information) to solve problems.

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Understanding HEIsWhat are HEIs?Are institutions that provide post secondary education and produce human resource, conduct research, and involve in community services. They are aimed at educating students to become: 1. well informed /knowledgeable/versed and deeply motivated citizens, 2. who can think critically, 3. analyze problems of society, 4. look for solutions to the problems, apply 5.accept social responsibilities. What is expected of them?

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The curriculum and personnel in HEIs should respond to the followingy Using new and appropriate methods, pedagogical and didactical approaches ; y Competencies and abilities for communicating effectively, creative and critical

analysis, independent thinking and team work in multicultural contexts;

y The curricula should take into account the gender dimensions and other cross

cutting issues, specific culture, historic and economic context of each country (Relevance); communities;

y The teaching of human rights standards and education on the needs of y Determination of academic curriculum by the academic personnel; and y New types of teaching-learning materials and evaluation techniques.

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The learner and the learning situations in HEIsy Who are the students of higher education?

(physically, socially, morally, psychologically, mentally, personally, financially the learners).y What does the learning situation include?

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. The human resources in the institutions, . physical resources (crm, lib.,lab,& workshops). . Material resources (teaching materials, audiovisual materials & others), the curriculum. . Financial materials (operational allowance, scholarships, research funds, training grants & others), . The political and social context (democracy vs dictatorship, peace vs war). y Example:y

Learning is influenced by the teacher - learner relationship. The roles of the teacher and the learner vary in this relationship. On the one hand, the teacher can be a mere transmitter of knowledge; the learner is entirely dependent on what the instructor says or does. He or she is then more of a "recipient" than a "learner". On the other hand, the teacher can play the role of a guide, or a facilitator. The learner is assisted in becoming autonomous, that is to say, in being able to plan his/her learning.7

Missions and Goals of HEIs in Eth.y The core missions and values of HE are to contribute to the sustainable

development and improvement of society as a whole. 1. To educate qualified graduates and responsible citizens;

2. To provide opportunity for HL learn throughout life. Giving learners an opportunity for individual dev t, social mobility, socially active participation, consolidation /strengthening of human rights, for indigenous capacity building, sustainable development, democracy and peace, in a context of justice; 3. Advance, create and disseminate knowledge through research and provide relevant expertise; 4. Help, protect and enhance societal values by training young people in the values which form the basis of democratic citizenship; 5 Contribute to the development and improvement of education at all levels, including through the training of teachers.8

HE Learners, Teachers and CurriculumI. HE learners As the major actors/partners and responsible stakeholders in the renewal of HEIs Considering them is as one of the ways in responding to the relevance and quality of education Decision makers need to place the learners and their needs at the center of their concern. We need to consider their demographic, psychological characteristics (motivation and selfconcept),sociological chaxs, (friendship and social linkage), cultural background, religious affiliation, quality of preparation at secondary school level, marital status and family background in planning lessons. Behaviors that characterize secondary school level is over here. i.e. there is a period of transition which is characterized by more freedom from parents, teachers and school regulations, -----physical, psychomotor, social, affective, emotional, intellectual/cognitive and their aspiration changes. Understanding them at entry level and provision of guidance and counseling service is priceless and invaluable here . At this stage we need to take the learners through the changing process in a smooth, gradual and painless way.

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Factors Affecting Learning at HEIsy Home background: Instructional language proficiency, parental styles and no. of family

in which they were grown, residential area, work experience.

y Impacts of prior experiences on the learner s learning: the learners here are in the state of

Piagetian stage of formal operations in their cognitive development. Moreover, their earlier socialization has also contributed to their b/r. Therefore, they are not in a position of the Tabula Rasa or empty vessel to be filled. They can solve problems, create knowledge, can carry group work, independent activities, think critically. But their secondary education might have endangered this. Such students need remedial or tutorial classes to help them makeup the subjects/course in which they score less.

y Selection/ admission criteria: When students below the expectation are allowed to admit.

y Psychosocial characteristics:

Psychological factors are normally resident within the learners. They include intelligence, motivational level, self-concept or emotional traits, attitude, cognitive dev t, expectations, values, political/religious orientations,. Sociological factors include family background, peer group influence, school setting and societal expectations, friendship patterns and linkages, social development.

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Cont.

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II. General characteristics of HE TeachersExpectations: an exemplars in teaching, research and community service (outreach programs, extension service, service learning, CBE, consultancy,----). These are duties of HE teachers 1. Good subject matter knowledge 2. An understanding of how students learn 3. A concern of students development 4. A commitment to scholarship 5. Continuing reflection on professional practice 6. A commitment to work with and learn from colleagues y Intellectual curiosity/inquisitiveness y Master of his/her field of knowledge and its methods of inquiry y Respect for truth y Intellectual honesty/openness/integrity y Fundamental understanding of the learning process

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Some hints to enhance the profile of the teacher (as a teacher)y Giving clear explanations: Use concrete, real life and relevant examples. y y y

y y y

Present practical applications and experiences. Use illustrations, graphs, and diagrams, relevant audio-visual aids Make clear presentation Effective speaking Effective nonverbal presentations use facial expressions, body gesture and movement, avoid distracting mannerism, use gaze/eye contact, use proximity, include a relaxed manner, humor, etc. Promoting student interest (describe relevant personal exp.) Demonstrate interest, present challenging and thought provoking ideas, examine controversial issues, relate the subject to current issues, use guest, panel discussion, Openness to ideas: let students feel free, be flexible in your thinking, encourage independent and original thought. Promoting Rapport (having consultation hrs), talking with students, show interest in students ideas and work/performance, provide opportunities for students talk, for question Effective communication: prepare clear objective, communicate objectives, course requirements, and grading criteria, reasonable evaluation, etc.13

Research profile be damned entreaty to academic of HE teachers To publish or perish or publish ory

staff of higher education institutions, rests largely on the plank of research activities.

y Research is important for HE teachers at least for three purposes:

1. It enhances the quality of instruction 2. Ensures teacher s ability of advising students (making one self up-to-date to the theories, methods of research) 3. For promotion: No research no promotion, publish or perish

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Characteristics of a good research