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. What do you understand by teaching and learning at HE? .How do they differ from that of other levels of education?


Teaching defined from different perspectives.y Idealists: Teaching as a process of transmitting/imparting knowledge y Pragmatists: Teaching as a process of facilitating individuals learning y Naturalists: Helping the individual develop the potentials s/he possesses Commonly: It can be understood as a process of facilitating individual s learning through motivation, coordination, guiding/directing the activities the learner performs and controlling/evaluating the learning results. It is a process of bringing about positive changes in a learner (Obanya, 1998).


Learning seen from different perspectives in psychologyy Learning as a process of acquiring knowledge through the mental process. y It is developing the mental caliber of the individuals y Learning is a relatively permanent change/ modification of the behavior (acquisition of knowledge, the development of skills and formation of value systems) of the learner as a result of practice. y N.B It is an integral/fundamental process which occurs in the learners. It is a relatively permanent change in the behavior of the person/learning.3

Stages in how learning takes placey The motivation stage: . Receiving a stimulus to learn . Selecting information from the env t by the sensory receptors y The acquisition stage: . Information processing, retrieving/recovering and exploiting (from the short-term memory to the long-term memory) y The performance stage: . Learners use, apply what they have acquired (information) to solve problems.


Understanding HEIsWhat are HEIs?Are institutions that provide post secondary education and produce human resource, conduct research, and involve in community services. They are aimed at educating students to become: 1. well informed /knowledgeable/versed and deeply motivated citizens, 2. who can think critically, 3. analyze problems of society, 4. look for solutions to the problems, apply 5.accept social responsibilities. What is expected of them?


The curriculum and personnel in HEIs should respond to the followingy Using new and appropriate methods, pedagogical and didactical approaches ; y Competencies and abilities for communicating effectively, creative and critical

analysis, independent thinking and team work in multicultural contexts;

y The curricula should take into account the gender dimensions and other cross

cutting issues, specific culture, historic and economic context of each country (Relevance); communities;

y The teaching of human rights standards and education on the needs of y Determination of academic curriculum by the academic personnel; and y New types of teaching-learning materials and evaluation techniques.


The learner and the learning situations in HEIsy Who are the students of higher education?

(physically, socially, morally, psychologically, mentally, personally, financially the learners).y What does the learning situation include?


. The human resources in the institutions, . physical resources (crm, lib.,lab,& workshops). . Material resources (teaching materials, audiovisual materials & others), the curriculum. . Financial materials (operational allowance, scholarships, research funds, training grants & others), . The political and social context (democracy vs dictatorship, peace vs war). y Example:y

Learning is influenced by the teacher - learner relationship. The roles of the teacher and the learner vary in this relationship. On the one hand, the teacher can be a mere transmitter of knowledge; the learner is entirely dependent on what the instructor says or does. He or she is then more of a "recipient" than a "learner". On the other hand, the teacher can play the role of a guide, or a facilitator. The learner is assisted in becoming autonomous, that is to say, in being able to plan his/her learning.7

Missions and Goals of HEIs in Eth.y The core missions and values of HE are to contribute to the sustainable

development and improvement of society as a whole. 1. To educate qualified graduates and responsible citizens;

2. To provide opportunity for HL learn throughout life. Giving learners an opportunity for individual dev t, social mobility, socially active participation, consolidation /strengthening of human rights, for indigenous capacity building, sustainable development, democracy and peace, in a context of justice; 3. Advance, create and disseminate knowledge through research and provide relevant expertise; 4. Help, protect and enhance societal values by training young people in the values which form the basis of democratic citizenship; 5 Contribute to the development and improvement of education at all levels, including through the training of teachers.8

HE Learners, Teachers and CurriculumI. HE learners As the major actors/partners and responsible stakeholders in the renewal of HEIs Considering them is as one of the ways in responding to the relevance and quality of education Decision makers need to place the learners and their needs at the center of their concern. We need to consider their demographic, psychological characteristics (motivation and selfconcept),sociological chaxs, (friendship and social linkage), cultural background, religious affiliation, quality of preparation at secondary school level, marital status and family background in planning lessons. Behaviors that characterize secondary school level is over here. i.e. there is a period of transition which is characterized by more freedom from parents, teachers and school regulations, -----physical, psychomotor, social, affective, emotional, intellectual/cognitive and their aspiration changes. Understanding them at entry level and provision of guidance and counseling service is priceless and invaluable here . At this stage we need to take the learners through the changing process in a smooth, gradual and painless way.


Factors Affecting Learning at HEIsy Home background: Instructional language proficiency, parental styles and no. of family

in which they were grown, residential area, work experience.

y Impacts of prior experiences on the learner s learning: the learners here are in the state of

Piagetian stage of formal operations in their cognitive development. Moreover, their earlier socialization has also contributed to their b/r. Therefore, they are not in a position of the Tabula Rasa or empty vessel to be filled. They can solve problems, create knowledge, can carry group work, independent activities, think critically. But their secondary education might have endangered this. Such students need remedial or tutorial classes to help them makeup the subjects/course in which they score less.

y Selection/ admission criteria: When students below the expectation are allowed to admit.

y Psychosocial characteristics:

Psychological factors are normally resident within the learners. They include intelligence, motivational level, self-concept or emotional traits, attitude, cognitive dev t, expectations, values, political/religious orientations,. Sociological factors include family background, peer group influence, school setting and societal expectations, friendship patterns and linkages, social development.




II. General characteristics of HE TeachersExpectations: an exemplars in teaching, research and community service (outreach programs, extension service, service learning, CBE, consultancy,----). These are duties of HE teachers 1. Good subject matter knowledge 2. An understanding of how students learn 3. A concern of students development 4. A commitment to scholarship 5. Continuing reflection on professional practice 6. A commitment to work with and learn from colleagues y Intellectual curiosity/inquisitiveness y Master of his/her field of knowledge and its methods of inquiry y Respect for truth y Intellectual honesty/openness/integrity y Fundamental understanding of the learning process


Some hints to enhance the profile of the teacher (as a teacher)y Giving clear explanations: Use concrete, real life and relevant examples. y y y

y y y

Present practical applications and experiences. Use illustrations, graphs, and diagrams, relevant audio-visual aids Make clear presentation Effective speaking Effective nonverbal presentations use facial expressions, body gesture and movement, avoid distracting mannerism, use gaze/eye contact, use proximity, include a relaxed manner, humor, etc. Promoting student interest (describe relevant personal exp.) Demonstrate interest, present challenging and thought provoking ideas, examine controversial issues, relate the subject to current issues, use guest, panel discussion, Openness to ideas: let students feel free, be flexible in your thinking, encourage independent and original thought. Promoting Rapport (having consultation hrs), talking with students, show interest in students ideas and work/performance, provide opportunities for students talk, for question Effective communication: prepare clear objective, communicate objectives, course requirements, and grading criteria, reasonable evaluation, etc.13

Research profile be damned entreaty to academic of HE teachers To publish or perish or publish ory

staff of higher education institutions, rests largely on the plank of research activities.

y Research is important for HE teachers at least for three purposes:

1. It enhances the quality of instruction 2. Ensures teacher s ability of advising students (making one self up-to-date to the theories, methods of research) 3. For promotion: No research no promotion, publish or perish


Characteristics of a good researchery Ability to identify problems y Ability to design an efficient method of solving the problem y Resourcefulness in implementing research plan y Objectivity y Honest y Perseverance y Willingness to collaborate with others y Ability to supervise others y Skills in writing winning grant proposal y Skills in reporting for publication15

Community servicey y y y

Committee work and membership of the task force Delivery of public lectures Offering of services in one s specialized area Office holder of national societies e.g. president/chairman of some professional org. ---

HW. y Q1. State the chaxs needed for successful participation in community services. y Q2. prepare checklist to evaluate the community service of yourself and your higher learning institution y Q3. How can this be improved


Curriculum dev t in HEy It must meet the needs of the work place (industry and business and

other world of work) (Relevance and Validity aspect)

y It has to stimulate the entrepreneurial skills of students. It has to be

flexible, innovative and follow interdisciplinary approach.

y Maintaining the quality of the curriculum is mandatory.

y The importance of periodic review and evaluating curriculum in terms

of its purpose, respond to market, entrepreneurships and relevance


Reasons for undertaking curriculum Development in HEy To improve what is taught y Filling the gap that currently exist in HE programs y Responding to the needs of society y Responding to research evidences




Practices of Curr. Dev t in HEy The construction and revision of the existing syllabus

for new or existing coursey The inclusion of new dev ts in the field of study

resulting from research and public declaration in to existing programs ( Civics and Ethical education, Entrepreneurship, ICT), etc.


Approaches in the theoretical basis for content selection in curr dev ty Topical approach: many topics based on knowledge

and experience y Conceptual approach: Content clustering around some major or sub-concepts y Thematic approach: a combination of concepts y Modular approach: leads to competence of certain skills and more common in TVET


Some practical hints on course development and implementationy Provide basic information y Describe the prerequisite to the course y Give an over view of the course s purpose y State the general learning goals/objective y Clarify the conceptual structure used to organize

the course y Describe the formats or activities of the course y Specify the textbooks and readings by authors and editions22

Some practical hints cont dy Identify additional materials or equipment needed

by the course y List assignments, term papers, and exams y State how students will be evaluated and how grades will be assigned y Discuss course policies y Inform students with special needs to contact you during office hours y Provide a course calendar of schedule y Estimate students workload23

Learning and related Issues1. Strategies and Styles of Learning y The concept of learning styles refers to individual typical ways of processing information and seeking meaning (Parkay, 2006: 169).


Learning Tasksy Learning tasks are open questions put to a small

group who have all resources they need to respond. There are a number of learning tasks including: 1. Inductive task= to understand the present learners conception/idea of a topic 2. Input task= Learners are expected to engage in new concepts or skills 3.Implementation task= It invites learners to implement new concept, skills, knowledge25

4. Integration task= application of the learned skills, knowledge--- to their life and work 5. Authentic learning tasks=Instruction here is organized around the whole task which are challenging.


Useful guides to design research based authentic tasks in webbased learning environments. 1.1. Authentic tasks have real-world relevance 2.Authentic tasks are ill-defined, requiring students to define the tasks and sub-tasks needed to complete the activity= open to multiple interpretations 3. Authentic tasks comprise complex tasks to be investigated by students over a sustained period of time. = they require hrs beyond classroom period 4. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity for students to examine the task from different perspectives, using a variety of resources 5. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity to collaborate


Useful guide cont d6. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity to reflect 7. Authentic tasks can be integrated and applied across different subject areas and lead beyond domain-specific outcomes 8. Authentic tasks are seamlessly/effortlessly integrated with assessment 9. Authentic tasks create polished products valuable in their own right rather than as preparation for something else 10. Authentic tasks allow competing/challenging solutions and diversity of outcome


Common Learning TheoriesA. Behavioral learning theories

. emphasize observable changes in behavior that result from stimulus-response (S-R) sequence that begins and ends out side the individual leaner. . Learning is the product of design rather than accident =Planning as a decisive factor. . Learning is regarded as a conditioning/training process by which a person acquires a new response. . Motivation and rewards as important components of learning.29

Common learning theories cont dB. Social Learning Theories . Learning process is primarily social, and learning occurs through socialization. . Socialization occurs in a variety of settings and it continues throughout life. . Albert Bandura s (1997)


Common learning theories cont dC. Cognitive learning theory . It focuses on the mental processes people use as they acquire new knowledge and skills. . Unlike behavioral theories, which focus on observable behavior, cognitive theories focus on the unobservable processing, storage, and retrieval of information from the brain.(Rationalists )


y D. Gestalt-field view of learning

. Refers to how learners organize information into patterns and wholes. .Gestalt is a German term meaning Configuration or pattern , and Gestalt theorists maintain that wholeness is primary; one should start with the total aspects of a learning situation and then more to particulars in light of the whole. . Thus, obtaining an overview is often an important step to learning.


Theories of learning cont dE. Constructivist Learning Theories

y Constructivist views of learning focus on how

learners make sense of new information, how they construct meaning based on what they already know. y According to constructivism, students develop new knowledge through a process of active constructivism. They do not passively receive or copy input from teachers or textbooks. Instead, they actively mediate it by trying to make sense of it and relate it to what they already know (or think they know) about the 33 topic (Good and Brophy, 2003).

page 42/43Aspects Behaviorist Cognitive Humanist Social leaning Constructiv ist

Learning theorists View of learning process Locus of learning Purpose of education Teacher s role Manifestatio n in adult learning34

Teaching as a Profession and Related issuesQ. What is a profession?y Profession is a form of employment or occupation, which is respected in society as honorable, and is only possible for an educated person and after getting training in some special branch of knowledge (An Oxford Dictionary). y A profession is an occupation that provides a special service to the community based on accumulated knowledge, skills and wisdom. y It also controls the entry qualifications and work standards of the members. y Thus, one can understand it clearly a profession is an employment that demands an individual to pass through training.35


Characteristics of a profession 1. Involves an intellectual activity/ body of subjectmatter knowledge/ and system of skills; 2. It is practicable/practical; 3. requires an extended period of preparation for entry; 4. It has literature and unique languages of its members; 5. It is organized 6. performs specific functions for personal and social purposes; yT37

1. Commitment profession cont d Teaching as ato the ideal service of human kind rather than to personal gains; 2. Undergoing a relatively long-period of training to acquire the knowledge and skills; 3. Meeting the admission qualifications (criteria) and keeping up-to date through in-service programs; 4. A high level of intellectual energy; 5. Forming organization 6. Trying to get opportunities for advancement, specialization and independence; 7. Ensuring permanent membership in the profession and taking teaching as one s life-long career. y Teachers who decide to be permanent members of the profession can contribute better than those who are always ready to leave the profession. y Teachers have commitments to their students, the home and the community, and the profession


. Commitment to the ideal service of human kind rather than to personal gains; 2. Undergoing a relatively long-period of training to acquire the knowledge and skills; 3. Meeting the admission qualifications (criteria) and keeping up-to date through in-service programs; 4. A high level of intellectual energy; 5. Forming organization 6. Trying to get opportunities for advancement, specialization and independence; 7. Ensuring permanent membership in the 39 profession and taking teaching as one s life-long

Teachers Professional code of ethicsy The teachers professional codes of ethics are related to their accountability/responsibility/commitment to their students, the profession, their employers, the home/parents and the community.y Every employee is expected to accomplish tasks the employer wants him/her perform in the organization faithfully and honestly with the required quality.


Unit II The Expected Quality of instructors

y Effectiveness in teaching is seen in terms of achieving instructional objectives. y Thus, an effective teacher is the one who achieves his/her objectives with a minimum energy, time, material, finance, etc. Effectiveness is determined by concrete factors and personal qualities. The concrete factors are related to the basic, identifiable, measurable and acquired issues which can be achieved through training. y They include general knowledge, specialized knowledge, professional knowledge & skills. y The personal factors are related to personal qualities which are more natural than acquired and are difficult to quantify. y The personal factors are teacher s personality traits that affect students behaviors.41

Good personal treats of teachers y Good charactery Respects truth, a person of words and actions y Remains being a student all through out his/her life y Has breadth of interest y Fairness and impartiality y Helpful and cooperative y Makes use of different methods of teaching and learning


Skills and Qualitieswith students:Instructor of Effective a. Ability of working. Have prior experience working with youth in alternative education settings. . Maintain student,confidentiality as appropriate. y Show respect for students and establish rapport with them. y Appreciate students individuality. y Practice tough love, Support them y Accept the students where they are y Have high expectations of students y Provide positive reinforcement. y Elevate or advance students who are doing well y Be flexible. y Demonstrate consistency in the classroom. Universality, reliable your activities. y Help students set goals and support them in achieving them.43

Skills and qualities of effective Instructors cont d B. Personality Characteristics. Have a sense of patience, of humor,. Demonstrate consistency, predictability and reliability. y Be available to students outside of class (i.e. meet with individual students if needed.) y Live what you teach. Lead by example and be a good role model. y Exhibit creativity and inquisitiveness. y Demonstrate empathy, caring and attentiveness. y Be non-judgmental, listen well and remain open to questions. y Have a strong sense of self, be honest with students and have good personal boundaries. y Convey the ethical and the philosophical aspects of the discipline44

Unit III Principles, Methods and Techniques of Teaching in HE


Definitions and Characteristics of Principles of Teachingy Principles of teaching are generalized statements about teaching activities, which govern the roles of the teachers and students both inside and outside the classrooms. y They help teachers perform their activities in specific directions and acceptable manners. y They are used as regulators of what the teacher does. y They help teachers get sufficient information on issues related to motivation, readiness, and mechanisms of self learning, ways and means of making students active participants, creating an environment to make instruction clear, understandable, applicable and finally durable.


Characteristics of principles of teachingy y y

Universal Essential . Compulsory- they make teachers effective in achieving the instructional objectives and efficient in the use of time, energy, materials, space, money etc their teaching activities. Socially determined the principles are results of long years of observation of life activities and the observation of the principles of teaching in all instructional activities help teachers satisfy the demands of the society and meet the needs of the learners at all levels



The Main Principles of Teaching and their uses in Teachingy y

The principle of planning lessons in line with the curriculum; The principle of linking / connecting school learning activities to social life; The principle of verbalization/Voicing in instruction; The principle advocates making students verbalize of what they are learning in their own words. The principle of making instruction clear by using different instructional media that appeal to the different senses; The principle of recognizing individual differences in teaching:





Principles cont dy y y y y

The principle of uniting instruction with scientific findings and procedures. The principle of integrating (coordinating) different subject areas; The principle of the leading role of the teacher and the independent activities of the learner; The principle of defining the objectives of the lesson; The principle of making lessons understandable / comprehensible/


Basic rules in presenting a lesson (The logical and psychological principles of teaching)y presenting lessons from the known and proceeding to the unknown. y Starting lessons from the simple and preceding to the complex y Presenting lessons from the easy and proceeding to the difficult y Starting from the concrete and proceeding to the abstract; y Starting from the whole and proceeding to the parts (specific) and the

vice versa It is found out that perception is better when it is on whole objects than on specific parts (remember the gestalt psychology theory of learning)

y Starting from the immediate and proceeding to the remote



Classification of methods of teachingA. Traditional Vs Modern Methods of teaching y Characteristics of the traditional method: The teacher: y conducts recitation (learning by heart or memorization by mechanical repetition) of what is to be learned; y is assumed to know all and source of knowledge; y motivates learning through warning of failure and punishment; y gives lessons / tasks without involving students; y evaluates the performances of students by hearing the recitation / reproduction of what was learned.51

Modern method of teaching Classification ofactively and develop skills and valuesd methods cont Attempts to involve the studentsy y y y y y y

in addition to the acquisition of knowledge. The students participation in the teaching learning process, especially in planning, organizing and performing the different tasks under the guidance of their instructor(s) is very high. Much attention is given to directing students efforts towards learning by doing rather than through memorization or recitation of the learned materials. Encouragement and guidance in the activities are given instead of warning of failure and punishment. The modern methods include problem solving, group discussion, project work, student s independent activities /study, individualized instruction, etc. They have activities that are based on the data collected. Applications of what require making analysis, reasoning and forming generalization are learned in particular and new situations are common activities. The methods enhance democratic teacher student relationships


Method cont dThe classifications of methods of teaching also include classifying methods of teaching as: 1. teacher s presentation methods (autocratic nature of a teacher); 2. teacher students conversation; methods ( question answer format, group discussion --- ); and 3. Student s independent work methods (self-planning, self-responsibility & self action, students learn according to their pace ..) The methods include the assignment, project and problem solving methods.53

Classification of methods contin dy Other classifications put the different methods as

student centered, teacher centered and active methods.


y Discuss on the role of an instructor in students

independent study.


The Major Methods of Teaching: Mechanism, Applications, Advantages and Disadvantagesy The Lecture Method: It is the oldest teaching

method, which is identified as a method of explanation or clarification of contents to students verbally. It is a method where the teacher is more active and students are made passive. It is usually a one-way communication where a teacher narrates or presents on social or natural events, processes, procedures, etc by citing authorities in the field of the subject but not students.56

Lecture method cont dy Discuss the types(modified/formal and

unmodfied/informal), application, advantages and disadvantages of lecture method.


Demonstration Methody Discuss on the definition, nature, classification

(formal and informal), components in (explanation, demonstration, students performance, instructor s supervision, and evaluation), and advantages and disadvantages of the demonstration method.


The group discussion methody In-group discussions, students usually discuss on a

topic, make a review, clarify points, make corrections, apply their earlier knowledge and skills and reinforce their learning. y The method is particularly suitable to contents that involve matters of opinion. It can be applied when the objective of the lesson is to bring about changes in the attitudes of the learners. One can use it whenever there is the need for obtaining feedback about the learners level of understanding and ability to apply the already acquired knowledge.


When should a teacher use the group discussion method?y y

y y

When the teacher expects the ideas of students to analyze a problem and decide on a plan of action; When the teacher feels that there is the need to expand the total amount of information obtained in the class by drawing out suggestions and opinions from many students, not from the teachers; When the teacher wants to make his/her students to get an understanding of a program, a principle or a policy; When the teacher wants to incorporate the discussion method as an essential part of most other methods;


Forms of Group DiscussionsThe different learning groups can be classified as: y Buzz group y Panel discussion group y Seminar group and y Brain storming group


The buzz group DiscussionIt is a discussion situation whereby the class students are divided into small groups of three to six students for a brief discussion. Then, the whole class later reforms for reporting the results. A Buzz group discussion is necessary when: y it is difficult to get a class start to discuss in a larger group;y y

teachers want some suggestion from the entire class when the teachers want to make class action to be based on the recommendations from all. students seem to be getting tired or bored. students hesitate to make critical comments in a large group;62

y y

Procedures on Conducting Buzz group Discussy To make effective use of a buzz group discussion, the teacher must do the following

1.Dividing the whole class into smaller groups of three to six students; 2. arranging their seats in a circle, so that they face each other; 3. asking them elect a chair person and a secretary; 4.telling the students the question for discussion; one must be sure that the students have understood it. If it is possible write it on the chalkboard. Make the task simple and just one question. 5. telling the students the amount of time they will have for discussion, possibly 5 to 10 minutes. 6. observing the groups and giving help to anyone who doesn t seem to understand the procedure; 7. a few minutes before the time is up, telling them that there are x minutes for the discussion. If there is an extension of time, announce to all groups. But don t let it be too long, for a buzz group session is always a brief discussion; 8. calling the group back together again and asking the secretary from the first group to report. Summarize the main points on the chalkboard. Call on the other secretaries requesting them to mention only new points which were not brought out by the first, the second, etc. It may become a time consuming and boring if you allow all the groups present all their findings.63

The Panel Group Discussiony y y y y y y

Panel group discussion is a discussion between a group of three to six people who have a special knowledge and interest in the topic to be discussed. A panel discussion group has a chairperson, panel members, and audience. More often the teacher who has invited the panel members act as a chairperson. It must be clear that the audience have no opportunity to express their views. They participate as listeners. The audience s questions will be addressed to the panel members through the chairperson before they come to the panel discussion. The students may raise additional questions. Panel discussion shouldn t last more than an hour. The topic for discussion may involve different people from different discipline. The panel members could be an educator, a social worker, an economists, etc.


In panel discussion the panel chairperson has the following responsibilities.y The chairperson (teacher) contacts members of the panel before the meeting. He/she briefs them about the purpose of the panel discussion, the background of the learners, and some important points, which need to be covered about the topic during discussion. y The chairperson gives an introduction, which should include the topic and, the purpose of the discussion, the names and qualifications of the panel members and the time limits of the discussion. y The chairperson presents questions prepared with the help of the students to the panel on the topic. y The chairperson provides opportunities for all panel members to express their views and he/she summarizes the points made by the speakers.65

Seminar Group Discussiony



A discussion after a student or group of students is made to prepare original paper(s) on different topic(s) and is made to present it/them. It is a method where the discussion will be conducted after the presentation. The method is common in teaching at higher learning institutions where the students are more matured than in the lower grades. The advantage is the involvement of students in the discussion. They learn how to listen to what others talk and express their own ideas when they are given the opportunity.


The Brainstorming Session / Group Discussiony

A discussion session by the whole group of a class to forward solution to a problem creatively. It is a conference technique whereby a group seeks as many answers to a problem posed as possible by collecting all the ideas contributed spontaneously by its members.The purpose of the discussion is simply to elicit a number of ideas about and responses to a problem. In the brainstorming session, there are four basic rules to be observed. The basic rules are that: criticism is forbidden and adverse judgments of ideas must be with held until late;. Thus, no one is allowed to make a negative remark. free wheeling is accepted, i.e. the wilder/natural/unusual the ideas the better. Thus, unusual ideas are encouraged; quantity is wanted. Because the greater the number of ideas the greater likelihood of devising solutions to problems; In addition to contributing ideas of their own, participants should suggest how the ideas of others can be improved or how two or more ideas can be synthesized. Later a judging committee screens these ideas.67

y y




Discuss on the advantage and the disadvantages of disussion methodThe group discussion method as a two-way communication has the following advantages. y In discussions different views and opinions are forwarded. This enables students to comprehend an issue from different angles; y It exposes students to valuable experiences which develop their skills of listening and speaking (communication skills) y It gives the students an opportunity to analyze and synthesize facts at a higher intellectual development. y It provides the possibility of constant feedback between the teacher and the students. When the response is erroneous or inappropriate, immediate modification can be introduced and justified y It helps students to learn and function efficiently in a group setting. y As it is fewer teachers centered, it allows students a chance to develop their ideas. y In general, group discussion enhances personal growth and competence. Students develop their communication skills, professional attitude and intellectual abilities.68

Limitations of Discussion Method of the discussion method are related to y The shortcomingspreparation and presentation group discussions have to be planned properly before the discussions. If group discussion is not well planned and directed, it consumes time unnecessarily. Only few students may dominate the situation. Thus, the group discussion method becomes productive if the teachers plan and conduct it properly


Role playing Methody It is presented in front of observers.y Role playing method is unrehearsed/spontaneous/unprepared

y y y y y y


dramatization in which the players attempt to take situation clear to themselves and to the audience by playing the role of participants in the situation. The instructor and the student in the class serve as observer and critics. It is experiential leaning It involves observation, discussion and analysis It is learning through entertainment It involves the skills of dealing with other people and helps in understanding students feelings and reactions. Serves as a means for changing attitudes, and developing confidence. It also provides opportunities to see oneself. It brings reality to classrooms and it does so dramatically and convincingly (solves the problem of time and space). It brings theory to life and teaches that one s perception of a situation is 70 not always like others.

Shortcomings of role playingy Loss and expense which would result from practicing in real-life

situation y Students may misinterpret it and emphasize its entertainment value than that of its educative value.


The Questioning and Answer method y As a method, it is an informal assessment technique, which is used with large groups of students. y It is a key technique of teaching because of its several contributions in teaching and learning. y The types could be content and process, lower order and higher order, convergent and divergent or factual and problem solving (heuristic)question methods.


To make the questioning and answer method effective follow the points belowy Formulate clear and precise questions y Adapt the questions to the students level of maturity and capacity; y Make all students actively participant; y State the questions before naming a student to respond; y Give enough time to think over and must demand complete answers; y Listen to the given answer carefully and evaluate it; y Use praise and other encouragement; y Use pause /wait time effectively between y Be active in accepting students responses in positive manner; y Paraphrase students responses but not answering one s own questions. y Using the techniques of paraphrasing, rephrasing, and redirection. In

oral questioning.


The project methody It is a method where students are usually given an individual topic for

an in depth analysis. They often have to work independently, do a kind of research and report either in writing or verbally to a group. y The project could involve a group of students working together on different aspect of the same problem. y It is a co-operative study where students are grouped and are made to produce tangible product. It is done with relatively little direct interaction with the teachers y The projects could be on construction of model houses, growing crops, preparation of food, collection of insects, rocks, cultural materials, plants, seeds, sample products, models, etc. There are a lot of project types.


Specific criteria to make projects useful1. Timely Environmental and seasonal factors need to be considered:2. Useful - the practical aim of the project must be identified. It must fulfill a long-standing need. The learning experiences in a project must be capable of being applied in life; 3. Challenging - project should neither be too simple and easy nor too long and difficult. 4. Economical - projects should not unnecessarily tax energy and money of students. There should be optimum use of the time; 5. Rich in experience - It must be capable of correlating different subjects and practical activities of life; 6. Enhancing co-operation it should allow students to think and plan independently and co-operatively. The project (s) should be implemented in such a way that the students are kept active both physically as well as mentally.75

The advantages of project methody it provides a conducive environment for learning through practice and y y y y y y y y

independently; it gives satisfaction and happiness to students; it provides situation to create unity of different subjects; it provided sufficient opportunities to the students to work cooperatively for common purpose; it cultivates virtues like tolerances, independence, open- mindedness, resource fullness, etc. it discourages memorization. It stresses problem - solving, thinking and reasoning; it provides freedom to work enthusiastically on self-chosen projects; it solves disciplinary problems for students don t get time to involve in anti-social acts; it makes learning durable, and makes students to get joy and learn in a natural way.76

Limitations of project Method1. A project method is a time-consuming this is so for students are left to work on their projects by themselves. They may take long to complete the work. 2. It is very expensive in terms of getting financial and materials required. 3. It requires highly trained teachers who are well rounded in many fields of study. 4. The materials required for project method may not be available easily and cheaply. 5. It is difficult to identify the share of work of individual members of the group if it is a group project. 7. Over use of a group project method creates a dependency of an individual on a group.


The Problem Solving Methody Conscious, planned and purposeful effort to arrive at

some solutions y It is the combination of many methods where trial and error approach is applied y It requires self directed learning. y Learners make their own discoveries y It helps students develop their reasoning power y It includes inquiry and project method.


Steps in the use of problem solving method1. Identifying and defining the problem. Make a clear conception of the problem and state it in a manner that it leads to a solution. 2. Formulating a hypothesis /basic questions to answer the questions. 3. Collecting and organizing the data and information 4. Making analysis of data collected. 5. Drawing conclusions on the basis of findings 6.Applying the findings (results).


Other Important Methodsy The field trip method y The student Independent study method y Team teaching method (Hierarchical team and Synergetic team

Organization of team: 1. The unit specialist team approach (the same field but specialized in different subjects ). 2. The differentiated team approach (diversified discipline) 3. Ad-hoc team approach


Advantages of team teachingTeam teaching method provides the following advantages. Team teachi 1. stimulates discussion among teachers who are jointly responsible for a group of students; 2. develops a strong sense of involvement and responsibility among students; 3. gives adequate opportunities to the students for free discussion/expression; 4. provides opportunities for the development of human relations which are essential for social adjustment. 5. provides opportunities for the students to get better knowledge, make proper use of resources, staff, etc.; 6. helps to make lessons fit to the needs of the learners and maintain classroom discipline; 7. helps teachers to evaluate the work of one another, to improve their own teaching and instruction 8. provides a flexible class size and help to provide guidance for the 81 learners as well as inexperienced teachers, etc.

Active learningy It refers to techniques where students do more than simply listen to a lecture. Students are DOING something including discovering, processing, and applying information. y Active learning "derives from two basic assumptions: (1) that learning is by nature an active endeavor and (2) that different people learn in different ways" (Meyers and Jones, 1993). Research shows greater learning when students engage in active learning.


Active Learning Techniques cont dy The following active learning techniques can be used

in small and large classes, and with all levels of students in any discipline. (But, it is up to the teacher to choose the appropriate active learning techniques for the concerned topic)


1. Think-Pair-ShareGive students a task such as a question or problem to solve, an original example to develop, etc. Have them work on this 2-5 minutes alone (think). Then have them discuss their ideas for 3-5 minutes with the student sitting next to them (pair). Finally, ask or choose student pairs to share their ideas with the whole class (share).


2. Collaborative learning groupsy These may be formal or informal, graded or not, short-term or long-term. Generally, you assign students to heterogeneous groups of 3-6 students. y They choose a leader and a scribe (note-taker). They are given a task to work on together. Often, student preparation for the CLG has been required earlier (reading or homework). The group produces a group answer or paper or project. These work is best in small to medium size classes,


3. Student-led review sessionsy Instead of the traditional instructor-led review session, have the students do the work. y Each student is to ask at least one question related to the material he or she doesn't understand, and to try to answer a question raised by another student. y Students can also practice discussing, illustrating and applying difficult material or concepts, or drafting exam questions. y For the second half of the review session, the whole class works together. Students may ask questions; other students volunteer to answer them.


4. Gamesy Games such as jeopardy and crossword puzzles can be

adapted to course material and used for review, for assignments, or for exams. y They can be used at the individual, small group or full class levels.y There are now some computer programs, for example,

to help you create crossword puzzles.


5. Analysis or reactions to videosy Videos offer an alternative presentation mode for

course material. Videos should be relatively short (5-20 minutes).y Prepare students ahead of time with reaction or

discussion questions or a list of ideas on which to focus; this will help them pay attention ( to analyze the speech of individuals).y After the video, have them work alone or in pairs

to answer critical questions, write a "review" or reaction, or apply a theory.88

6. Student debatesy These can be formal or informal, individual or group,

graded or not, etc. They allow students the opportunity to take a thesis or position and gather data and logic to support that view, critically. y Debates also give students experience with verbal presentations. y Some faculty members ask students their personal view on an issue and then make them argue the opposite position.


7. Student generated exam questionsy This can be used for review or for the actual exam. y This technique helps students actively process

material, gives them a better understanding of the difficulties of writing reliable and valid exam questions, helps them review material, and gives them practice for the exam.


8. Mini-research proposals or projects; a class research symposiumy Have the students work on designing a research

study on a topic from the class. In some situations, you may be able to have them collect data during class time (observe some situation or give out some short surveys) or you may have them doing this as part of an outside-of-class project. y Either way, have students present their research in a class research symposium similar to what we do at professional meetings. Invite other faculty and students.


9. Analyze case studiesy Bring in case studies for students to read (for

example, I will put a case example of sexual harassment on an overhead). y Have students discuss and analyze the case, applying concepts, data, and theory from the class. y They can work as individuals or in groups or do this as a think-pair-share. Consider combining this with a brief in-class writing assignment.


10. Keeping journals or logsy Have students make journal or log entries (keep

records) periodically (on paper or computer, in or outside of class). y Require a brief critical reflection or analysis of each entry as well. For example, in my gender class, students must record instances of sex inequality (sex discriminations, sexism, sexual harassment against women or men) they observe. They then discuss this instance applying course terms and theories. Be aware of ethical issues if you ask students to record and analyze personal events or issues.93

11. Write and produce a newsletter

y Have small groups of students produce a brief

newsletter on a specific topic related to class. y Students should include articles with relevant research, post information on upcoming related public events, and so on. y Share these with faculty and students in related courses or in the major.


12. Concept mappingy Here students create visual representations of models,

ideas, and the relationships between concepts. y They draw circles containing concepts and lines, with connecting phrases on the lines, between concepts. y These can be done individually or in groups, once or repeated as students acquire new information and perspectives, and can be shared, discussed, and critiqued.


Unit 5: Classroom Organization and Management of the instructional activities in higher educationDefinitions and purposes of classroom organization What is classroom organization? Classroom organization is a deliberate creation of the learning environment by considering the instructional objectives and the specific activities to be done by each student to achieve the desired end results.y 1: y


Crm orgorganization as a conscious cont d y Classroomarrangement of the classroom in its totality to achieve the instructional objectives can be seen in terms of: A. Patterns for arranging participants (small group versus whole class presentation); B. Resources used or resources of information; C. Rules of appropriateness


The major patterns of the classroom seating arrangement include: rows facing the teacher and the y Making students sit inblackboard (row-and column).The advantages y it appears to be very convent for formal teaching of a lot of students in one class; y it makes the blackboard in front of all students and becomes easy and accessible to the teacher and the writing can be seen easily by all students; y it makes easy to move between rows and orderly distribution and collection of instructional materials; y it makes the management of students discipline easy through row monitors


Raw-and column cont d The disadvantages include that:y the student at the back side cannot see the work or

practice of student in the front side; y it is difficult to the teacher to evaluate each student s work in the classroom; y it is not convenient to practice different methods of teaching such as small group discussions, demonstrations, etc.


2. Cluster seating patterny The cluster pattern arrangement is characterized by the formation of little clusters of students in different positions in the classroom. It is very much convenient for buzzgroup discussions. y In cluster grouping, the size of each group should not be more than six members. Grouping can be done randomly or by considering the abilities or compatibility of group members. At all times, there must be some one who acts as a leader. The leadership should rotate.


The cluster seating pattern provides the following advantages:y It makes students to communicate easily with each other; y It is easier for students to work as a team and to help each other as peers; y Movement from one cluster to another is not too restricted; Leadership and co-operation are two important elements of classroom relationship which result from this kind of seating arrangement; y It makes the management of the classroom discipline easy when there is the need for students to work in group or solve problems together. y The arrangement is not convenient to teach large class students and it is time consuming.


The Horse Shoe Pattern Arrangementy An arrangement where the teacher sits in the

center, half way along the diameter. This arrangement provides the following advantages: y It can be used when the lesson entails a lot of discussion; y It enables the teacher to check every member easily and help; y It enables students to consult with each other; y It is easy to rearrange the group without wasting time.102

The Round table pattern Arrangementy It is a good arrangement for discussion lessons. It can be round or square. Unlike the horse shoe arrangement, the authority of the teacher is completely decentralized and formal leadership roles are played down considerably. There is usually no group leader in this arrangement.

Its advantages include that: y it is an arrangement convenient when there is anything to be recorded or to be listened on tape; y it is useful when there is just one object to be used as display for a lesson. It can be placed at the center for all to see and comment upon;




ConclusionIn general, classroom organization as an arrangement of activities, students, classroom resources for instruction differs from time to time and activity to activity. The instructional objectives and the activities to be done will dictate it. Some activities demand larger space to move freely while others require silent seat works. Some demand talking loudly while others need no noise. Some require the use of different instructional materials with a maximum care while some don t need materials at all. y Thus, classroom organization is a prerequisite to achieve objectives easily, if the teacher fails to organize the students, the activities and the whole class for the required task resources such as time, energy, money and materials will be wasted. Students may involve in some kinds of misbehaviors.



Definition of CRM Mngty Classroom management is a process of organizing and conducting a

class so as to make instruction effective and efficient. It is a process of managing the teaching and learning activities to get maximum students learning. It is a process of establishing and maintaining order. y It requires careful planning and providing students with pleasant and supportive climate for learning; creating interests and desires to learn and achieve; establishing control; avoiding disciplinary disturbances and promoting effective students learning.

y Effective classroom management depends on the nature of the task at hand. For instance, laboratory classes allow students for a great amount of conversation and movement and lecture sessions require quiet attention and purposeful conversation.107

Effective classroom management requires:y Good planning;

Preparation of one s lesson by identifying the instructional objectives, lesson contents, methods of teaching, materials, organizing a learning environment, setting rules, etc. y Conducting the class; It demands the ability and skills to use the selected methods, materials, appropriate styles, pacing, motivating and guiding students, etc. y Monitoring: It is a process of maintaining classroom order or discipline by using different approaches and techniques.108

Purposes and Areas of Classroom ManagementEffective classroom management helps in the advancement to the fulfillment of the objective of teaching and facilitates learning. Classroom management aims at: y promoting an environment (physical and emotional) to be conducive to effective learning; y guaranteeing class time to be used for learning effectively; y securing the support and co-operation of students in classroom activities; and y ensuring the active and meaningful engagement of students to the learning task at hand.109

Areas of Classroom ManagementClassroom management involves managing: A. Contents of the lesson(s) B. Methods of teaching (the ability to select the methods and apply them in concrete situation) Methods of teaching are selected by considering: a. the instructional objectives; b. the nature of the contents to be taught; c. the ability, experience, maturity level, needs and interests of the learners; d. the facilities / conditions of the school; and e. the teacher s personality


y presenting the lesson by making students active

participants; y accepting students feelings, ideas and questions y responding to students questions; y reinforcing students activities; y applying the major principles of teaching; y considering individual differences and accommodating them; etc. y the use of appropriate questioning techniques that involve students in applying their earlier knowledge and skills such as making the questions convergent (factual nature), divergent (multiple responses questions) and commenting.111

C. Time allocated to a given lesson; y The different activities of a teacher and students are done within the given time. All teachers are expected to manage their time properly. The time management involves: y distributing the time to the different activities; y keeping one s pace of presentation; y making appropriate decision on the right time to make students active participant or involve them in doing individual seat works or in group activities y fixing the time for questions in the middle or at the end of the lesson; y displaying teaching aids at the right time;


D. Materials and space;Teachers at all levels are expected to manage the materials and spaces set for the instructional activities. The management includes: y the use of the appropriate instructional materials / teaching aids; y the application of the rules in the use of the chalkboard; y the management of students seat; y the arrangement of materials in their proper order; y making the classroom hold enough seats and other resources


E. managing students behavior and their social

relationships through a democratic way It requires: y creating conditions for students good interpersonal relations; y preparing the classroom atmosphere for cooperation, mutual help and concern to each other as opposed to conflicting conditions; y creating mechanisms to identify individual differences and accommodating them; etc.


Causes of classroom misbehavior1. Teacher related causes 1. Poor teaching 2. lack of planning and preparation; 3. ineffective style of presentation; 4. failure to use appropriate teaching aids (suitable audio-visuals) 5. failure to involve students in the instructional activities and failure to apply the major principles of teaching; 6. failure to structure one s lessons and present them in steps; 7. failure to set the right task; 8. failure to enforce the rules set115

Student related causesAntipathy to school or disinterest in learning in general; Lack of interest in a particular subject Dislike to a teacher or hostility towards a teacher; Attention seeking; Ignorance of the classroom rules;


y unsettled or disruptive home environment y Unpleasant peer relations; y Emotional upset y Bad physical condition


School Environment Related Causesy The absence of sufficient materials for the classes,

laboratories the workshops and fields: y Conflicting rules of the school and the home; y the class size;


Approaches and Techniques to Maintain Classroom DisciplineA. The Authoritarian Classroom Management Approachy The use of controlling strategies. The major goal of the teacher is just to control students behavior by any mechanism. The approach offers five strategies that the teacher might wish to include in his/her repertoire of managerial strategies They are: y establishing and enforcing rules; y issuing commands, directives and orders; y utilizing mild desist, requesting students to stop misbehaving; y utilizing proximity control; and y utilizing isolation and exclusion y Establishing and enforcing rules119

B.The Intimidation/ threatening Classroom Management Approachy Like the authoritarian approach, it is a process of controlling student behavior. y Unlike the authoritarian approach (which stresses the use of humane teacher behavior) the intimidation approach emphasizes the use of intimidating teacher behaviors harsh forms of punishment such as sarcasm/criticism, ridicule/scorn, coercion, threats, force and disapproval. y The teacher forces the students to behave according to the teacher s dictates.


3. The Permissive Classroom Management Approach

y This approach maximizes students freedom. y The major theme of it is that the teacher should

allow students to do what they want whenever and whatever they want. y The role of the teacher is to promote the freedom of students and thereby foster their natural development. y It helps students develop self directness, selfdiscipline and self responsibility if students are made free physically and psychologically.121

4. The Cookbook Classroom Management Approach

y It provides descriptions of lists of things a teacher

should or should not do when he/she is confronted with various classroom management problems. Sample of lists of dos and don ts are given as follows: y always reprimand and a pupil in private; y never raise your voice when admonishing/giving a warning students y always be firm and fair when dealing with students; y Never play favorites when rewarding students etc. 122

5. The Instructional Classroom Management Approachy This is an approach, which is to be done based on the contention that carefully designed and implemented instruction will prevent problems. The approach argues that effective management is the result of high quality instructional planning. Thus, the teacher needs to plan his/her lesson by considering the needs, interests, etc of students. It plays both preventing and solving managerial problems. However, well designed and implemented instructional activities contribute more to prevention than to solving problems that have already occurred in a classroom. y Advocates to this approach suggest that the teacher should consider the following instructional managerial strategies:

i. providing interesting, relevant and appropriate curriculum and instruction;


y employing effective movement management; y establishing classroom routines; y giving clear directions; y utilizing interest boosting mechanisms; y providing for environmental changes; y planning and modifying the classroom

environment; and y restructuring the situation


6. Creating a Positive Social Emotional Climate in the Classroom

y It is an approach, which assumes that learning is maximized in a positive classroom climate, which, in turn, stems from positive interpersonal relationships. Thus, both teacher student and student student relationships can be easily achieved if the teacher creates a favorable and friendly classroom atmosphere. Obviously, this is an approach that conceives the classroom as a social system in which group processes are of major importance. It strongly assumes that instruction takes place within a group context. y Therefore, the nature and behavior of the classroom group are viewed as having significant effects on learning, even though learning is seen as an individual process. At this point the role of the teacher is to foster the development 125 and operation of an effective classroom group.

The Preventive Techniquesy Disciplining: y The Provision of Freedom; y Sharing Responsibilities y The Provision of Incentives y Establishing and maintaining good

Interpersonal Relationships y Making Effective / Good Teaching y Co-operative rule making y Explaining Procedures126

7. The principle of Behavior Modification Approachy This views classroom management as the process of modifying students behavior. y learning is influenced largely, if not entirely, by events in the environment. y The four factors are related to positive reinforcement, punishment, extinction and negative reinforcements. Thus, the teacher is required to master and apply the factors identified above. y These different approaches can further be classified into specific classroom management techniques.


Curative / Remedial Techniques Ignoring y Eye Contact: y Closing in or Proximity, physical closeness: Touch and signal y Humor y Separating Misbehaving Children y Out of sight Technique y Restructuring y changing the teaching method; (give individual work), giving them the energizer or activator allow them to sing their favorite song, physical exercise, tell them jokes or short stories, giving the class five 128 minutes rest, etc.