pemilihan investasi terbaik pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20 Matakuliah : D 0094 Ekonomi Teknik Tahun : 2007

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Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20. Matakuliah: D 0094 Ekonomi Teknik Tahun: 2007. Pendahuluan. Dalam mengevaluasi proyek, di pokok bahasan yang lalu hanya satu metode ekonomi teknik yang perlu digunakan karena metode berbeda akan memberikan hasil yang sama. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik

Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Matakuliah : D 0094 Ekonomi TeknikTahun : 2007

Page 2: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Bina Nusantara

Pendahuluan

• Dalam mengevaluasi proyek, di pokok bahasan yang lalu hanya satu metode ekonomi teknik yang perlu digunakan karena metode berbeda akan memberikan hasil yang sama.

• Bagaimana cara memilih metode yang digunakan (bila tidak diberikan oleh soal/bila didunia kerja) adalah dengan menggunakan tabel berikut ini:

Page 3: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Bina Nusantara

Comparing Mutually Exclusive Alternatives

EvaluationPeriod

Type of Alternatives

Recommended Method

Series to evaluate

Equal lives of alternatives

Revenue or servicePublic Sector

AW or PWB/C based on AW or PW

Cash FlowIncremental Cash Flow

Unequal lives of alternatives

Revenue or servicePublic Sector

AWB/C based on AW

Cash FlowIncremental Cash Flow

Study period Revenue or servicePublic Sector

AW or PWB/C based on AW or PW

Updated Cash FlowUpdated Incremental Cash Flow

Long to infinite Revenue or servicePublic Sector

AW or PWB/C based on AW

Cash FlowIncremental Cash Flow

Page 4: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Memilih Proyek

• Setelah melakukan pemilihan metode, selanjutnya dilakukan pemilihan Rate of Return, atau interest rate berdasarkan metode evaluasi (seperti dalam tabel berikut ini)

• Setelah itu dapat dipilih investasi terbaik.• Disini kita akan kembali bertemu dengan MARR

(Minimum Attractive Rate of Return) sebagai alternative Rate of Return yang digunakan.

• MARR sendiri disini kita anggap sebagai hurdle rate, ambang batas, agar kita memperoleh keuntungan.

Page 5: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Evaluation Method

Equivalence Relation

Lives of Alternatives

Time Periods for Analysis

Series to Evaluate

Rate of Return; Interest Rate

Decision Guideline: Select*

Present Worth

PW Equal Lives Cash flow MARR Numerically largest PW

PW Unequal LCM Cash flow MARR Numerically largest PW

PW Study period

Study period

Updated cash flow

MARR Numerically largest PW

CC Long to infinite

Infinity Cash flow MARR Numerically largest CC

Future Worth

FW Same as present worth for equal lives, unequal lives, and study period

Numerically largest FW

Annual Worth

AW EqualOr unequal

Lives Cash flow MARR Numerically largest AW

AW Study period

Study period

Updated cash flow

MARR Numerically largest AW

AW Long to infinite

Infinity Cash flow MARR Numerically largest AW

* Lowest equivalent cost or largest equivalent income

Page 6: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Evaluation Method

Equivalence Relation

Lives of Alternatives

Time Periods for Analysis

Series to Evaluate

Rate of Return; Interest Rate

Decision Guideline: Select*

Rate of Return

PW or AW Equal Lives Incremental cash flow

Find i* Last i*> MARR

PW or AW Unequal LCM of pair

Incremental cash flow

Find i* Last i*> MARR

AW Unequal Lives Cash flow Find i* Last i*> MARR

PW or AW Study period

Study period

Updated Incremental cash flow

Find i* Last i*> MARR

Benefit / Cost

PW Equal or Unequal

LCM of pair

Incremental cash flow

Discount rate

Last C > 1.0

AW Equal or Unequal

Lives Incremental cash flow

Discount rate

Last C > 1.0

AW or PW Long to infinite

Infinity Incremental cash flow

Discount rate

Last C > 1.0

* Lowest equivalent cost or largest equivalent income

Page 7: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Choice of MARR

Or you can choose MARR based on:• Choice of MARR when Project Financing is Known• Choice of MARR when Project Financing is

Unknown• Choice of MARR under Capital Rationing

Page 8: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Choice of MARR when Project Financing is Known

When you find theNet present worth ofthe project, use cost of equity (ie) as the discount rate.

Explicit accounts For debt flows

Page 9: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Choice of MARR when Project Financing is Unknown

Without explicitly treatingthe debt flows, make a tax adjustment to the discountrate, using the weighted cost of capital k.

Page 10: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Choice of MARR as a Function of Budget

Project AO

Cash FlowA1 IRR

1 -$10,000 $12,000 20%

2 -10,000 11,500 15

3 -10,000 11,000 10

4 -10,000 10,800 8

5 -10,000 10,700 7

6 -10,000 10,400 4

Borrowing rate

(k) = 10%

Lending rate

(r) = 6%

Page 11: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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An Investment Opportunity Schedule2422201816141210

8642

0 $20,000 $40,000 $60,000

20% 15% 10% 8% 7% 4%

Project 1

Project 2

Project 3Project 4

Project 5Project 6

Required capital budget

Rat

e of

ret

urn

(%)

Page 12: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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A Choice of MARR under Capital Rationing

2422201816141210

8642

0 $20,000 $40,000 $60,000

20% 15% 10% 8% 7% 4%

Project 1

Project 2

Project 3Project 4

Project 5 Project 6

Required capital budget

Rat

e of

ret

urn

(%)

k = 10%

r = 6%

MARR

Borrowing rate (k) = 10%Lending rate (r) = 6%

Page 13: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Capital Budgeting

• Evaluation of Multiple Investment Alternatives– Independent projects– Dependent projects

• Capital Budgeting Decisions with Limited Budgets

Page 14: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Independent Projects

Alternative Description Xa Xb

1 Reject A, Reject B

0 0

2 Accept A, Reject B

1 0

3 Reject A, Accept B

0 1

4 Accept A, Accept B

1 1

Page 15: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Mutually Exclusive Projects

Alternative (XA1, XA2) (XB1,XB2)

1 (0,0) (0,0)

2 (1,0) (0,0)

3 (0,1) (0,0)

4 (0,0) (1,0)

5 (0,0) (0,1)

6 (1,0) (1,0)

7 (0,1) (1,0)

8 (1,0) (0,1)

9 (0,1) (0,1)

Page 16: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Contingent Projects

Alternative XA XB XC

1 0 0 0

2 1 0 0

3 1 1 0

4 1 1 1

Page 17: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Four Energy Saving Projects under Budget Constraints (Budget Limit = $250,000)

Project Investment AnnualO&M Cost

Annual Savings (Energy)

Annual Savings (Dollars)

IRR

1 $46,800 $1,200 151,000 kWh $11,778 15.43%

2 104,850 1,050 513,077 kWh 40,020 33.48%

3 135,480 1,350 6,700,000 CF 32,493 15.95%

4 94,230 942 385,962 kWh 30,105 34.40%

Page 18: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Marginal Cost of Capital Schedule (MCC) and Investment Opportunity Schedule (OSC)

Page 19: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Optimal Capital Budget

Page 20: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Infeasiblealternatives

BestAlt.

j Alternative Required Budget

Combined Annual Savings

1 0 0 0

2 A1 $(46,800 $10,578

3 A2 (104,850) 38,970

4 A3 (135,480) 31,143

5 A4 (94,230) 35,691

6 A4, A1 (141,030) 46,269

7 A2, A1 (151,650) 49,548

8 A3, A1 (182,280) 41,721

9 A4, A2 (199,080) 74,661

10 A4, A3 (229,710) 66,834

11 A2, A3 (240,330) 70,113

12 A4, A2, A1 (245,880) 85,239

13 A4, A3, A1 (276,510) 77,412

14 A2, A3, A1 (287,130) 80,691

15 A4, A2, A3 (334,560) 105,804

16 A4, A2, A3, A1 (381,360) 116,382

Page 21: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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Summary

• Methods of financing: 1. Equity financing uses retained earnings or funds raised from an issuance of stock to finance a capital.

2. Debt financing uses money raised through loans or by an issuance of bonds to finance a capital Investment.

• Companies do not simply borrow funds to finance projects. Well-managed firms usually establish a target capital structure and strive to maintain the debt ratio when individual projects are financed.

Page 22: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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• The selection of an appropriate MARR depends generally upon the cost of capital—the rate the firm must pay to various sources for the use of capital.1. The cost of equity (ie) is used when debt-financing methods and repayment schedules are known explicitly.2. The cost of capital (k) is used when exact financing methods are unknown, but a firm keeps it capital structure on target. In this situation, a project’s after-tax cash flows contain no debt cash flows such as principal and interest payment

Summary (Summary (ContCont))

Page 23: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Bina Nusantara

• The cost of the capital formula is a composite index reflecting the cost of funds raised from different sources. The formula is

• The marginal cost of capital is defined as the cost of obtaining another dollar of new capital. The marginal cost rises as more and more capital is raised during a given period.

ki C

V

i C

VV C Cd d e e

d e , where

Page 24: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

Bina Nusantara

• Under conditions of capital rationing, the selection of MARR is more difficult, but generally the following possibilities exist:

Conditions MARR

A firm borrows some capital from lending institutions at the borrowing rate, k, and some from its investment pool at the lending rate, r.

r <MARR< k

A firm borrows all capital from lending institutions at the borrowing rate, k.

MARR = k

A firm borrows all capital from its investment pool at the lending rate, r.

MARR = r

Page 25: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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• The cost of capital used in the capital budgeting process is determined at the intersection of the IOS and MCC schedules.

• If the cost of capital at the intersection is used, then the firm will make correct accept/reject decisions, and its level of financing and investment will be optimal. This view assumes that the firm can invest and borrow at the rate where the two curves intersect.

Page 26: Pemilihan Investasi Terbaik Pertemuan 19 dan 20

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• If a strict budget is placed in a capital budgeting problem and no projects can be taken in part, all feasible investment decision scenarios need to be enumerated. Depending upon each investment scenario, the cost of capital will also likely change. Our task is to find the best investment scenario in light of a changing cost of capital environment. As the number of projects to consider increases, we may eventually resort to a more advanced technique, such as a mathematical programming procedure.