“perceiving and conceiving” structures exo vs. endo - skeleton light and view...

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  • Perceiving and Conceiving StructuresExo vs. Endo - SkeletonLight and view Penetrations..SkinWrapping.Framing.OrderingMovementLight .. HeavySolid ... VoidBeauty

  • Structures What role does the structural system play?

    Is the structure supportive or deterministic of the aesthetic quality of the building? Or Is the Structural system invisible?

    How has the role of the structure in a building changed over time?

    What is my attitude about how to reveal or express structure in my design?

  • Interrelated Architectural systems Structural Systems.............................. spanning and supporting

    Enclosure defines perimeter and interior

    Apertures / Fenestration........... creates a Connection between Interior and exterior spaces

    Spatial Ramifications. structural organization influences/creates space

    Materials. Structural and weather resistant

  • Structures in History The development of structural materials and structural theory has a long and varied historyAh, to build, to Build, that is the noblest of all the arts Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

  • Structural Systems Direct Load BearingBearing WallsCorbellingArches, vaults, domes post and beamStoneHeavy timbersteelReinforced concrete post and PlatformReinforced concrete others

  • Load Bearing Bearing Walls Corbelling Arches, Vaults, Domes..

  • Bearing Walls Massive masonry walls carry compression loads

    The space is primarily vertical

    The skin is determined by structure.

    The problem is creating spans in masonrySpan is limited by depth in stone lintels.

    Corbelling was an early solution

    The arch was the Roman solution to creating apertures and large spans..

  • CorbellingCorbelled stone domeMycenaean fortressCorbelling is achieved by stacking masonry units in a stair-step fashion to bridge the opening.

  • Arches, Vaults, DomesGravity shaped inverted archArch ThrustsSt. Louis ArchBarrel Vault an extruded archDome arch 360dome in bendingAn Arch never Sleeps James Fergusson

  • Load Bearing Colosseum of Rome Hagia SophiaMasonry load-Bearing structures were solid and monumental. The challenge was to create light and airy spaces. Notice the proportion of solid to empty space in the floor plans of the colosseum in rome and the Hagia Sophia.

  • Post and Beam Stone.. Heavy Timber Reinforced Concrete Steel.

  • Post and BeamThe Hypostyle Hall results from the desire to make outdoor public open space The enclosure is independentfrom the structure, eitherby-pass continuous or infill ....The Structure can meet theGround very delicately, onJust a few points ParthenonThomas hacker libraryBauhaus, dessau

  • Structural Forces Two types of Forces:CompressionTensionBending is the Result of Tension and Compression in a member

    Tension and Compression can be broken up into Horizontal and Vertical Components

    Gravity loads and Lateral Loads result in tension and compression of structural membersGravity Loads: Dead loads (weight of structure) and live loads (people, furniture, snow)Lateral Loads: Earthquake, Wind, Earth retention

  • Gravity LoadsLoad Distribution:Gravity Load on Beam = PGravity Load on each Support = P/2Two types of Forces:TensionCompressionBottom of beam in TensionTop of Beam in CompressionReinforcing:Steel reinforcing in concrete occurs where beam is in tension because concrete is weak in tension

  • Gravity LoadsLoad Distribution:Gravity Load on Beam = PGravity Load on each Support = P/2Two types of Forces:TensionCompressionBottom of beam in TensionTop of Beam in CompressionReinforcing:Steel reinforcing in concrete occurs where beam is in tension because concrete is weak in tension

  • Lateral LoadsMoment Frame Deflection:Exaggerated wind deflectionOccurs only if connections between members are rigid (Welds)Shear:Connections are pinned (bolts, nails)

    Two Solutions:Make rigid connectionsDiagonal X-Bracing / triangulation

  • Lateral LoadsFrame Deflection:Exaggerated wind deflectionOccurs only if connections between members are rigid (Welds)Shear:Connections are pinned (bolts, nails)

    Two Solutions:Make rigid connectionsDiagonal X-Bracing / triangulation

  • Post and Platform Reinforced Concrete

  • Post and Platform Villa SavoyeThe Skin of the building is independent of the structure, which allows more fenestration, and the space is primarily horizontal except for the top level. Johnson Wax Building

  • Campus Buildings Direct Load Bearing post and beam

    post and PlatformEMU newer portion (west side)

  • Louis I. Kahn Exeter Library, ExeterA Concrete Core provides Lateral Stability. . .The atrium in the center lets light in from above, which filters through the structure into the stacks on each floor. Upon entering the atrium on the main floor, the entire organization is understood in the clarity of the spaces and structure.

  • Louis I. Kahn National Assembly, DakaBearing Walls of Concrete and MarbleThe concrete Bearing walls are poured on site. Limited by the building technology to 4 pour heights, the horizontal joint is expressed by bands of marble. Light is brought in through openings in a layered wall system, creating an inner street and innermost private space at the Heart.

  • Calatrava - Oriente Station, LisbonSteel and Concrete Soaring StructuresContinuous Spaces are Linked by Dynamic Movement. Because of shifting boundaries as one moves through the space, the structure defines nodes and paths.

  • Calatrava - Oriente Station, LisbonSteel Columns branch skywardA tree-like Canopy provides shade and cover as Branching columns are linked into a continuous frame.

  • Calatrava Milwaukee Art MuseumThe structure of this canopy shades, and seems to derive form from the wings of a bird What is the attitude about Structure? Is it sculpture ? Art? Does it dominate or is it integral to the function of the museum ?How far should Structure reach to achieve beauty?Is Isolated Structure Architecture ?

  • Structures What role does the structural system play?

    Is the structure supportive or deterministic of the aesthetic quality of the building? Or Is the Structural system invisible?

    How has the role of the structure in a building changed over time?

    What is my attitude about how to reveal or express structure in my design?

  • ReferencesPictures from: www.thomashacker.com www.uoregon.edu www.calatrava.comMario Salvadori. Why Buildings Stand Up

    Other good Sources: Ed Allen. Architects Studio CompanionFrancis Ching. Building Construction Illustrated

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