periodization ce early middle ages: 500 – 1000 high middle ages: 1000 – 1250 late middle ages:...
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Periodization CEEarly Middle Ages: 500 1000High Middle Ages: 1000 1250Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500
Europe in the 6c
Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. curb heresies crusades; Inquisition tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peters Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].
Romanesque Architectural Style Rounded Arches. Barrel vaults. Thick walls. Darker, simplistic interiors. Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.
Charlemagne: 742 to 814
Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800
The Carolingian Renaissance
Charlemagnes Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843
FeudalismPolitical, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.
Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior
Evolution of Englands Political System Henry I: Williams son. set up a court system. set up dept. of royal finances. Henry II: established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. grand jury. trial by jury.
Magna Carta, 1215 King John I Great Charter monarchs were not above the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily.
Beginnings of British Parliament Great Council: middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] added at end of 13 cent. eventually called Parliament by 1400, two chambers evolved: House of Lords nobles & clergy House of Commons knights & burgesses
Notre DameGothic Architectural StyleFlying buttressesPointed archesHigh, narrow vaultsThinner wallsStained-glass windowsElaborate, ornate, airier interiors
Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade
Christian Crusades: East and West
Medieval GuildsGuild Hall Commercial Monopoly: Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices
First to have this title emperor in over 300 years. The focus shifted away from Mediterranean and up into Northern EuropeCarolingian (from Latin, Charles) protectors of the Frankish Kings (kings under Charlemagne)military effectiveness of resisting Muslim advances. (Charles Martel Battle of Tours in France stopped spread of Islamic Empire into Europe)
Rebirth of old Roman traditions/values. Including writing. Common writing. Easy to readwas able to help common people access writing easier. Across Europe, there was now some commonality of writing for the first time. System was not that simple: Relations between all of these people differed too much form on e place to another and form ont time toa nther to fit together in anything resembling a system. The lord of the manor provided governance and justice, direct royal government being quite limited. The king had only few financial resources and seldom exercised legal jurisdiction at a local level.
Monasteries and nunneries fell under jurisdiction of the church. Women could own land nobelwomen administered husbands estates when he was away at war. Against hereseyWanted trade routesNobels (especially younger sons who didnt inherit land) were hungry for land wanted to increase their statusPromised full forgiveness of sins if died in battleChurch wanted to demonstrate its political authority over western christiandom.
1st crusade captured Jerusalem 1099Muslims got it back in 1187Did not show Western superiority, only passing episode in Middle EastHelped expose West to cultural and economic influences of Middle East