periodization early middle ages 500 – 1000 high middle ages 1000 – 1250 late middle ages 1250 -...

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  • PeriodizationEarly Middle Ages 500 1000

    High Middle Ages 1000 1250

    Late Middle Ages 1250 - 1500

  • Europe in the 6th Century

  • The Roots of Early Medieval Culture The Classical heritage f Rome (and Greece) The Roman Catholic Church The culture and customs of the Germanic tribes

    Referred to as the Dark Ages due to limited cultural output (relative to?)

  • The Roots of Early Medieval Culture The fall of the western Roman Empire led to governmental and economic decentralization and cultural decline Central governments disappear Small kingdoms are established based on family loyalty, personal ties and local customs Economic activity/commerce is disrupted Urban centers are abandoned. Population shifts to countrysideLearning declines; loss of Classical Greek and Roman culture (Latin). Local languages replace This accelerates and deepens following Carolingian rule

  • The Medieval Catholic Church The Church filled the vacuum left from the collapse of Rome, and preserved learning and provided stability Monasticism Saint Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience Provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war Libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. Preserved knowledge Monks = Missionaries to the barbarians Sister Scholastica and convents for women

  • A Medieval Monastery The Scriptorium

  • Illuminated Manuscripts Text supplemented with decorated initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations (gold and silver) Earliest manuscripts are from the period AD 400 to 600 and were primarily produced in Ireland, Constantinople and Italy

  • The Medieval Catholic Church Pope Gregory extends power of the Catholic Church Claims most of Europe for Christendom, regardless of Church control Exerts/extends extensive secular control

  • Early Medieval Culture Gaul (France) Clovis converts to Christianity(496) and conquers much of Gaul. Establishes the Merovingian dynasty

    Germanic tribes converted, Muslims fought

  • The Carolingians, 751-987 Charles the Hammer Martel, 700. A Frank major domo, defeats the Muslims at Battle of Tours. Key figure His son Pepin the Short appointed King Pepins son Charlemagne rules for forty seven years

  • Charlemagne: 742 to 814

    Charlemagne defeats Muslims and Germanic tribes Extends control over area larger than Byzantine Empire and converts conquered to Christianity Establishes his palace and center of learning at Aachen. Becomes center of culture and learning Defends Pope and made Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III

  • Charlemagnes Empire

  • Pope Crowns Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800

  • Carolingian Miniscule

  • Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) Cathedral and Palatine Chapel at Aachen

    Possible Reconstruction of Charlemagnes Palace at Aachen

  • The Carolingian Renaissance

  • The Carolingians, 751-987 Charlemagne limits the power of nobility, extends empire and fosters learning Son Louis the Pious and grandsons fail. Divide empire

  • Charlemagnes Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843 The treaty reflects adherence to the old Frankish custom of divisible inheritance amongst a rulers sons, rather than primogeniture, inheritance by the eldest son, which would later be adopted by Frankish kingdoms

  • The Rise of Feudalism 850-950 End of Carolingian Rule External attacks by Vikings, Magyarss, and Muslims leads to insecurity and uncertainty and to new, ever more decentralized economic and governmental systems Social and governmental system referred to by historians as Feudalism Seigneurialism, or Manorialism, better describes the economic arrangements within this system

  • FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service

  • The Rise of Feudalism A social system based on rights and obligations Key concepts of lord, vassal and fief

    Based on homage and oath of fealty. The lord and vassal entered a contract in which the vassal promised to fight for the lord at his command

  • The Medieval Manor

  • Life on the Medieval ManorSerfs at work

  • Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle

  • Parts of a Medieval Castle

  • The Road to KnighthoodKNIGHT

    SQUIRE

    PAGE

  • Medieval SeigePBS Medieval Seige

  • Chivalry A Code of Honor and Behavior

  • The Power of the Medieval Church The Catholic Church was the leading unifying or centralizing force in Medieval Europe It owned or controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe and clergy played a large role in the feudal/ manorial system Nevertheless huge conflicts occurred between secular leaders and The Church

  • Church Concepts & ConflictsSacraments Rites of Church offered and withheldCanon Law Church LawExcommunication and interdict PunishmentsTithe Donation to ChurchHoly Roman Empire and Emperor (Otto, et. al.)Lay investiture Secular appointments (banned 1075 - conflicts between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII)Concordat of Worms SimonyWordly livesHeresy

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