periodsperiods early middle ages: 500 – 1000 high middle ages: 1000 – 1250 late middle ages:...
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Slide 2 PeriodsPeriods Early Middle Ages: 500 1000 High Middle Ages: 1000 1250 Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500 Slide 3 Europe in the 6c Slide 4 The Medieval Catholic Church filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. monasticism: St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. monks missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface] Slide 5 The Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. curb heresies crusades; Inquisition tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peters Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants]. Slide 6 A Medieval Monks Day Slide 7 A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium Slide 8 Illuminated Manuscripts Slide 9 Romanesque Architectural Style e Rounded Arches. e Barrel vaults. e Thick walls. e Darker, simplistic interiors. e Small windows, usually at the top of the wall. Slide 10 Charlemagne: 742 to 814 Slide 11 Charlemagnes Empire Slide 12 Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800 Slide 13 The Carolingian Renaissance Slide 14 Carolingian Miniscule Slide 15 The Rise of European Monarchies: England Slide 16 Charlemagnes Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843 Slide 17 FeudalismFeudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service. Slide 18 Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle Slide 19 Parts of a Medieval Castle Slide 20 The Road to Knighthood KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE Slide 21 Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior Slide 22 The Medieval Manor Slide 23 Life on the Medieval Manor Serfs at work Slide 24 Slide 25 William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry) Slide 26 Norman Conquest Doomsday BookDoomsday Book Creates Shire Reeves= SheriffsCreates Shire Reeves= Sheriffs Gave Land to the Catholic ChurchGave Land to the Catholic Church Created the Great CouncilCreated the Great Council Slide 27 Evolution of Englands Political System Henry I: Williams son. set up a court system. Exchequer dept. of royal finances. Henry II: established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. grand jury. trial by jury. Had Thomas Becket Murdered Slide 28 King Richard The Lion Heart King Richard The Lion Heart Took Throne after Henry II diedTook Throne after Henry II died Spent much time and money fighting in the crusadesSpent much time and money fighting in the crusades His brother Prince John assumed control in Richards absence.His brother Prince John assumed control in Richards absence. Richard does return to England but is not able to manage the country wellRichard does return to England but is not able to manage the country well John will take over upon Richards deathJohn will take over upon Richards death Was the story of Robin Hood real?Was the story of Robin Hood real? Slide 29 Magna Carta, 1215 King John I Runnymeade Great Charter monarchs were not above the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily. Slide 30 The Beginnings of the British Parliament Great Council: middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. eventually called Parliament. by 1400, two chambers evolved: o House of Lords nobles & clergy. o House of Commons knights and burgesses. Slide 31 The Rise of European Monarchies: France Slide 32 Capetian Dynasty 843- Carolingian Dynasty was divided into 3 parts843- Carolingian Dynasty was divided into 3 parts In the west rose Hugh CapetIn the west rose Hugh Capet Kings did not have much power Philip II AugustusPhilip II Augustus Turning point: extended French monarchy Captured Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine Slide 33 Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade Slide 34 Setting Out on Crusade Slide 35 Christian Crusades: East and West Slide 36 High Middle Ages Church Pope Gregory VII- elected in 1073Pope Gregory VII- elected in 1073 Extended authority over Christian WorldExtended authority over Christian World Appointed its own clergy to power and ran its own affairs Succeed by Pope Innocent IIISucceed by Pope Innocent III Height of Church power- 1200s Slide 37 Rise of Orders Cistercians: strict; simple diet; no decorations, spiritual ideaCistercians: strict; simple diet; no decorations, spiritual idea Dominicans: defend church teachings from heresyDominicans: defend church teachings from heresy Franciscans: live among the people providing aid to the poorFranciscans: live among the people providing aid to the poor St. Francis of Assisi Born wealthy, devoted life to poverty, humility, and devotion to JesusBorn wealthy, devoted life to poverty, humility, and devotion to Jesus Opposed the use of RelicsOpposed the use of Relics Slide 38 Life on the Medieval Manor Serfs at work Slide 39 Medieval Trade Slide 40 Late Medieval Town Dwellings Slide 41 Rise of Universities 1 st European university began in Bologna- early 1300s1 st European university began in Bologna- early 1300s The University of ParisThe University of Paris OxfordOxford 80 universities by 150080 universities by 1500 St. Thomas Aquinas- wrote the Summa TheologicaSt. Thomas Aquinas- wrote the Summa Theologica Slide 42 Medieval Guilds Guild Hall Commercial Monopoly: C ontrolled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices Slide 43 Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmiths Shop Slide 44 Crest of a Coopers Guild Slide 45 Slide 46 100 Years War France vs. EnglandFrance vs. England French land controlled by England National identity issues Issues of succession The War was a series of short raids and expeditions punctuated by a few major battles, marked off by truces or ineffective treaties.The War was a series of short raids and expeditions punctuated by a few major battles, marked off by truces or ineffective treaties. Slide 47 French Advantages Population of about 16,000,000.Population of about 16,000,000. Far richer and more populous than England.Far richer and more populous than England. At one point, the French fielded an army of over 50,000 at most, Britain mustered only 32,000.At one point, the French fielded an army of over 50,000 at most, Britain mustered only 32,000. Slide 48 British Advantages Weapons Technologies.Weapons Technologies. In almost every engagement, the English were outnumbered.In almost every engagement, the English were outnumbered. Britains most successful strategies: / Avoid pitched battles. / Engage in quick, profitable raids Steal what you can. Destroy everything else. Capture enemy knights to hold for ransom. Slide 49 The use of the English defensive position was the use of the longbow.The use of the English defensive position was the use of the longbow. Its arrows had more penetrating power than a bolt from a crossbow.Its arrows had more penetrating power than a bolt from a crossbow. Could pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at 200 yards! A longbow could be fired more rapidly.A longbow could be fired more rapidly. 6 arrows per minute. The Longbow as a Weapon Slide 50 King Henry V (r. 1412 - 1422 ) Renewed his familys claim to the French throne.Renewed his familys claim to the French throne. At Agincourt in 1415, the English, led by Henry himself, goaded a larger French army into attacking a fortified English position.At Agincourt in 1415, the English, led by Henry himself, goaded a larger French army into attacking a fortified English position. With the aid of the dukes of Burgundy, Henry gained control over Normandy, Paris, and much of northern France! Slide 51 The French Reconquest The two kings deaths ushered in the final stage of the 100 Years War [1422-1453].The two kings deaths ushered in the final stage of the 100 Years War [1422-1453]. Even though in 1428 the military and political power seemed firmly in British hands, the French reversed the situation. In 1429, with the aid of the mysterious Joan of Arc, the French king, Charles VII, was able to raise the English siege of Orleans.In 1429, with the aid of the mysterious Joan of Arc, the French king, Charles VII, was able to raise the English siege of Orleans. This began the reconquest of the north of France. Slide 52 Joan of Arc (1412 - 1432) The daughter of prosperous peasants from an area of Burgundy that had suffered under the English.The daughter of prosperous peasants from an area of Burgundy that had suffered under the English. Like many medieval mystics, she reported regular visions of divine revelation.Like many medieval mystics, she reported regular visions of divine revelation. Her voices told her to go to the king and assist him in driving out the English. She dressed like a man and was Charles most charismatic and feared military leader!She dressed like a man and was Charles most charismatic and feared military leader! Slide 53 Joan Announces the Capture of Orleans to the King Slide 54 Joan of Arc (1412 - 1432) She brought inspiration and a sense of national identity and self-confidence.She brought inspiration and a sense of national identity and self-confidence. With her aid, the king was crowned at Reims [ending the disinheritance].With her aid, the king was crowned at Reims [ending the disinheritance]. She was captured during an attack on Paris and fell into English hands.She was captured during an attack on Paris and fell into English hands. Because of her unnatural dress and claim to divine guidance, she was condemned and burned as a heretic in 1432. She instantly became a symbol of French resistance. Slide 55 The End of t