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  • PUB FR-093 2010

    Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

    PRINTED ONRECYCLEDPAPER

    Wisconsins Forestry Best Management Practices for Water Quality / FIELD MANUAL 2

    Permits

    C H A P T E R

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    Permits for Water Quality

    Stream Crossings

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    Grading

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    Wetlands and Floodplains

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    for loggers, landowners, and land managers

    Best ManagementPractices forWater Quality

    FIELD MANUAL

    Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry

    Wisconsins Forestry

  • Contents

    Wisconsins Forestry Best Management Practices for Water Quality / FIELD MANUAL 32 Wisconsins Forestry Best Management Practices for Water Quality / FIELD MANUAL

    This document is a publication of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. It fulfills aportion of the states commitment under its Nonpoint Source Program and replaces the 2003edition of Wisconsins Forestry Best Management Practices for Water Quality.

    The development of this manual was directed by the Advisory Committee for Forestry BMPs forWater Quality, which has broad representation from Wisconsins forestry community. A field manualsubcommittee helped draft and review the text for this edition of the manual.

    Members of the Field Manual Subcommittee were:

    Russ Aszmann, Taylor County Forestry and Recreation

    Patrick Dayton, Southwest Badger Resource Conservation & Development

    Max Erickson, Great Lakes Timber Professionals Association

    Pat Goggin, University of Wisconsin-Extension Lakes Program

    Chris Knotts, US Army Corps of Engineers

    Butch Lobermeier, Bayfield County Land and Water Conservation Department

    Tim Pulskamp, Futurewood Corp.

    Sara Sommer, USDA Forest Service

    Dale Zaug, Wisconsin Woodland Owners Association

    The Wisconsin DNR would like to thank the Maine Forest Service for granting permission to use material from its field manual, Best Management Practices for Forestry: Protecting MainesWater Quality.

    Lead Authors: Steve Holaday and Carmen Wagner, Wisconsin DNR

    Graphic Design: Nan Rudd, Rudd Design

    Chapter 1: Introduction 7

    Forests and Water Quality ....................................................................... 7History of Wisconsins Forestry BMPs for Water Quality.......................... 11Using This Field Manual .......................................................................... 13A Closer Look at Modifying BMPs .......................................................... 14Resources ................................................................................................ 14

    Chapter 2: Wisconsins Water Resources 15

    Lakes ....................................................................................................... 16A Closer Look at Beaver Ponds ............................................................... 16Streams ................................................................................................... 17Wetlands ................................................................................................. 18Resources ................................................................................................ 20

    Chapter 3: Planning 21

    Forest Management Plans....................................................................... 21Mapping Resources................................................................................. 23A Closer Look at the DNRs Surface Water Data Viewer ......................... 26Permits .................................................................................................... 28Cost-Share Programs............................................................................... 28Planning Checklist................................................................................... 30Resources ................................................................................................ 31

    Chapter 4: Forest Roads 33

    Regulations ............................................................................................. 34Types of Forest Roads ............................................................................. 35Location and Design BMPs ..................................................................... 36A Closer Look at Balancing Transportation Needs .................................. 38Road Construction................................................................................... 38Road Construction BMPs ........................................................................ 44Drainage Structures................................................................................. 45Drainage Structure BMPs ........................................................................ 53A Closer Look at Road Building Challenges in the Driftless Area............ 55

    This publication is available from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources,Division of Forestry, PO Box 7921, Madison, WI, 53707. For additional information, call(608) 267-7494 or visit our web-site at: www.dnr.wi.gov/forestry/.The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources provides equal opportunity in itsemployment, programs, services and functions under an Affirmative Action Plan. If youhave any questions, please write to Equal Employment Opportunity Office, Departmentof Interior, Washington, D.C, 20240.This publication is available in alternative format upon request. For additionalinformation, call (608) 267-7494.

    Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

  • Wisconsins Forestry Best Management Practices for Water Quality / FIELD MANUAL 54 Wisconsins Forestry Best Management Practices for Water Quality / FIELD MANUAL

    CONTENTS CONTENTS

    Soil Stabilization BMPs ........................................................................... 56A Closer Look at Why Roads Fail ............................................................ 60Road Maintenance BMPs........................................................................ 61Resources ................................................................................................ 63

    Chapter 5: Stream Crossings 65

    Planning .................................................................................................. 65Regulations ............................................................................................. 66General Stream Crossing BMPs............................................................... 67Stream Crossing BMPs for Culverts......................................................... 69Stream Crossing BMPs for Fords ............................................................. 70Temporary Stream Crossing BMPs .......................................................... 71Resources ................................................................................................ 72

    Chapter 6: Timber Harvestings 73

    Landing BMPs ......................................................................................... 74Skid Trail BMPs........................................................................................ 75General Timber Harvesting BMPs............................................................ 76Dry Wash BMPs....................................................................................... 77A Closer Look at Timber Harvesting Challenges in the

    Lake Superior Clay Plain .................................................................... 81Resources ................................................................................................ 82

    Chapter 7: Riparian Management Zones 83

    Regulations ............................................................................................. 84Riparian Management Zone Categories.................................................. 85A Closer Look at Measuring Stream Width ............................................. 88BMPs Common to All RMZ Categories.................................................... 90BMPs for Lakes, Designated Trout Streams, and Streams 3 Feet Wide and Wider .............................................................. 91BMPs for Streams Les