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  • Terms and Conditions of Use:

    this document downloaded from

    vulcanhammer.infothe website about Vulcan Iron Works Inc. and the pile driving equipment it manufactured

    All of the information, data and computer software (information) presented on this web site is for general information only. While every effort will be made to insure its accuracy, this information should not be used or relied on for any specific application without independent, competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suit-ability and applicability by a licensed professional. Anyone making use of this information does so at his or her own risk and assumes any and all liability resulting from such use. The entire risk as to quality or usability of the information contained within is with the reader. In no event will this web page or webmaster be held liable, nor does this web page or its webmaster provide insurance against liability, for any damages including lost profits, lost savings or any other incidental or consequential damages arising from the use

    or inability to use the information contained within.

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    Visit our companion sitehttp://www.vulcanhammer.org

  • This report presents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the use of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate the consolidation of soft, wet clays beneath embankments. Design and construction guidelines for using prefabricated vertical drains as a ground improvement technique are presented along with detailed specifications, design examples, and cost data. This report will be of interest to bridge engineers, roadway design specialists, construction and geotechnical engineers concerned with foundation settlement problems.

    Sufficient copies of tne report are being distriouted oy FHWA Bulletin to provide a minimum of two copies to each FBWA regional and division office, and three copies to each State highway agency. Direct distribution is being made to division offices.

    Richard E. Hay, D' ti

    ctor Office of Enginee ng and Highway Operations Research and Development

    NOTICE NOTICE

    This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of inEormation exchange. Transportation in the interest of inEormation exchange. The United States The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof.

    The contents of this report reflect the views of the contractor, who is responsible for the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official policy of the Department of Transportation.

    This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

    The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein only because they are considered essential to the object of this document.

  • Technical Report Documentation Page

    1. Report No. 2. Government Acccsrton No. 3. Rectptents Catalog No.

    FHWA/RD-86/168 yQg7 - As-+9 4. Title and Subtitle

    / 5. Report Date

    Prefabricated Vertical Drains September 1986 Vol. I, Engineering Guidelines 6. tcrformgng Organ, letton Code

    7. Authors)

    0. PerformIng Organlzatlon Report NO.

    J.J. Rixner, S.R. Kraemer and A.D. Smith 9. Performing Organlzatlon Name and Address 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

    Haley & Aldrich, Inc. FCP35P2-032 238 Main Street Il. Conwact or Grant No. Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 DTFH61-83-C-00101

    13. Type of Report and Peraod Covered

    12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address Final Report Office of Engineering and Highway Operations September 1983 -

    Research and Development August 1986 Federal Highway Administration 14. Sponsoring Agency Code 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, Virginia 22101-2296 JME/0237

    15. s upplementory Notes

    FHWA contract manager (COTR): A.F. DiMillio (HNR-30)

    .la-

    16. Abstract

    This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal tion of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. The contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of August 1986. The volume is intended to provide assistance to engineers in deter- mining the applicability of PV drains to a given project and in the design of PV drain systems. The information contained herein is intended for use by civil engi- neers familiar with the fundamentals of soil mechanics and the principles of precom- pression.

    The volume includes descriptions of types and physical characteristics of PV drains, discussion of design considerations, recommended design procedures, guideline speci- fications and comments pertaining to installation guidelines, construction control, and performance evaluation.

    This volume is the first in a series. The others in the series are: FHWA No. Vol. No. Title RD-861169 - II Prefabricated Vertical Drains: Summary of Research Effort RD-861170 III Prefabricated Vertical Drains: Laboratory Data Report RD-861171 I Geocomposite Drains: Engineering Assessment and Preliminary

    Guidelines RD-861172 II Geocomposite Drains: Laboratory Data Report

    17. Key Words 18. Dlsrrlbutlon Statement

    Vertical drains, prefabricated vertical No restrictions. This document is avail- drains, wick drains, precompression able to the public through the National

    Technical Information Services, Springfield, Virginia 22161

    19. Security Classif. (of this report)

    I 20. Security Ciassif. (of this page) 21. No. of Pages 22. Price

    Unclassified I Unclassified I 117 I I I I

    Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-W Reproduction of completed page authorized

  • METRIC CONVERSiON FACTORS

    APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM METRIC MEASURES APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM METRIC MEASURES

    SYMKL WHENWU~UUIPLYBY TO FIND SYMBOL SYMBOL WkEN YOU KIJ(M MULTIRY W TO FIND

    LENGTH LENGTH

    In incW 2.5 centimeters cm H fd 30 crntimeterr cm

    yd yah 0.9 meters m

    mi mlln 1.6 klbmeterr km

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    VOLUME

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    t-Pa-6 5 milliliter6 tablespmns I5 milliliters

    fluid ounce6 30 milliliter6

    CW6 0.24 liter6 pint8 0.47 liters

    quart6 0.95 lIterr

    qallonr 3-e liter8 cubic fert 0.03 cubic meter6

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    VOLUME

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    2.1 pints

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    TEMPERATUZ bcoct)

    TEMPERATURE buxtl OC CdtilI6 35 Wen Fahrenhrtt s

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  • Section

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    INTRODUCTION

    1. Purpose and Scope of Guidelines. ........... 1 2. Assumptions and Limitations. ............. I

    BACKGROUND

    :: Basic Principles of Precompression .......... 3 Purpose and Application of Vertical Drains ...... (-;

    3. History of Vertical Drains .............. 8

    4. Characteristics of PV Drains ............. 9

    DESIGN CONS1 DERATIONS

    1. Objectives ...................... I7

    2. Design Equations ................... IB

    2 The Ideal Case .................... 21 The General Case ................... 24

    5. Design Approach. ................... 30

    EVALUATION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS

    :: Objectives ...................... 33 Soil Properties (ch, kh, k,) ............. 33

    3. Drain Properties (dw, qw). .............. 37 4. Disturbed Soil Zone (d,) ............... 39 5. Drain Influence Zone (D) ............... $1

    DRAIN DESIGN AND SELECTION

    :: Objectives ...................... $4 Selection of PV Drain Type .............. '15

    i: Other Design Considerations. ............. 17 Drain Spacing and Length ............... 52

    5. Drainage Blankets. .................. 55

    ;: Design Procedure ................... 56 Design Example .................... jg

    8. Specifications .................... 59

    iii

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

    Section

    INSTALLATION

    Page

    1. Introduction ..................... ~1 2. Site Preparation ................... 61 3. Installation Eq