ph health chapter 01 5/26/06 8:24 am page 6 section 2 ... ?· section 2 6 chapter 1 objectives ......
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6 Chapter 1
ObjectivesBefore class begins, write the objectiveson the board. Have students copy theobjectives into their notebooks at thestart of class.
Ask students to read the myth andrespond to the writing prompt. Ask afew students to share their responses.Make a list of possible sources on theboard. Briefly discuss the reliability ofthe sources students mention. Use thediscussion to introduce factors thatcan influence health.
Teaching Transparency W2
Identifying Health Risks
Q: My parents are overweight. Does thatmean I will be overweight as an adult?
A: Not necessarily. Even if heredity had aninfluence on how much your parentsweigh, it was not the only influence. Thefoods people learn to like as children, howmuch they eat, and their level of physicalactivity all have an effect on their weight.
You cannot control your heredity, but youcan control your behaviorwhat you eat,how much you eat, and how physicallyactive you are. Use your concern aboutweight to make healthy decisions aboutthose factors you can control. But do notoverreact and starve yourself because youare afraid of gaining weight.
TEENS Are Asking . . .
6 Chapter 1
Objectives Identify factors that can
influence a personshealth.
Describe three strategiesyou can use to evaluaterisk factors.
Vocabulary heredity gender environment culture media habit risk factor
Influences on HealthTwo babies are born on the same day in the same city in the United States.Which baby will live longer? Which will have a higher quality of life? Toanswer these questions, you would need to consider the different factorsthat influence a persons health. Factors that can influence health includeheredity, environment, media, technology, healthcare, and behavior.
Heredity To some extent, your level of health is already determinedat the time you are born. This is because of your all the traitsthat are passed biologically from parent to child. Traits that you inheritcan affect your health. Your skin color, for example, can affect your risk ofdeveloping skin cancer. With fair skin, you have a greater likelihood ofdeveloping skin cancer than if your skin is dark. Another example is breastcancer. Some women inherit a higher risk for this disease.
Even if you inherit a risk factor, you can lower your overall risk byavoiding other risk factors. If you have fair skin, you can be sure to usesunscreen. Women who inherit a risk factor for breast cancer can choosenot to smoke because smoking is another risk factor for breast cancer.
Another part of your heredity is your whether you are maleor female. Gender can influence your health because risk factors may varybetween males and females.
Myth Using a cell phone puts a person at risk for developing cancer.
Fact Cell phone use does not increase the risk of developing cancer. However, cell phone use while driving does greatly increase the risk of a car crash.
Where do you think people get their information about health risks? How reliable are those sources of information?
Sensitive Issues For students with health problems,the role of personal behavior inhealth may be a sensitive issue. Makesure students understand that theycannot control all the factors thatinfluence their health, but they canhave considerable control over theirbehavior.
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Making Healthy Decisions 7
Less Proficient Readers Pair less proficient with more proficientreaders, and ask pairs to make graphicorganizers of factors that influence health.They can use any type of graphic organizer
(e.g., outline, concept map, spider diagram)that suits the material. Have studentsinclude examples of each factor that influences health.
Physical Environment The is all of the physical andsocial conditions that surround a person and can influence that personshealth.Your physical environment includes both your outdoor and indoorsurroundings. The quality of the air you breathe and the water you drinkare important to your health. So is your exposure to disease-causingorganisms, to loud noise, and to radiation from the sun and other sources.
Being aware of potential risks in your physical environment can helpyou protect your health. If you know that breathing in the smoke exhaledby a smoker increases your risk of lung cancer, you can try to avoidsecond-hand smoke. If you know that loud noises damage your hearing,you may be more likely to keep your music at less-than-harmful levels.
Social Environment Your social environment includes the peopleyou spend time withyour family, friends, classmates, and other peoplein your community. Most people learn their first basic health lessons fromtheir family. Wash your hands before you eat. Brush your teeth beforegoing to bed. Look both ways before crossing the street. Family membersalso can have a major influence on your mental and emotional health.
Your friends can influence your health in many ways. Friends whotake too many risks can put a lot of pressure on you to do the same. Yoursocial environment is healthier when you choose friends who show con-cern for their own health and yours.
Culture A persons culture is part of his or her social environment.is the beliefs and patterns of behavior that are shared by a group
of people and passed from generation to generation. The group may be anation, a region of a country, or an ethnic group. Some aspects of culturecan influence your health. One example is the foods you choose to eat. Insome cultures people eat little or no meat; in others, meat is the main partof the diet. Another example is the way you show your emotions. In somecultures, public displays of emotion are typical; in others, people tend tokeep their emotions private.
How do your friends affect your physical, emotional, and social health?
Connect to YOUR LIFE
FIGURE 3 Your physical and socialenvironments, including culture,influence your health. Relating Cause and Effect Usethe examples in the photographs toexplain how the environment couldaffect a persons health.
Reading/Note Taking 1-2
Adapted Reading/Note Taking 1-2
Influences on Health
Visual Learning: Figure 3Have students look at the photographsand read the caption. Before students try to answer the caption question, askvolunteers to describe the content ofeach photograph. Encourage students tothink of other ways they could illustratethese influences on health. Caption Answer Sample answer: A person who listens to loud music candamage his or her hearing. Spendingtime with friends and family membersprovides opportunities to share yourthoughts and feelings with people whocare about you.
Cultural ConnectionHave students identify differencesamong cultures that they think canhave an influence on health. For example, in some cultures people tendto eat whole-grain breads or includeless red meat in their diet. Attitudestoward the expression of emotions ortoward physical activity can vary amongcultures.
Allow students to answer this question in their
Connect to YOUR LIFE
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8 Chapter 1
Chapter 1, Section 2
Building Health SkillsAnalyzing Influences Have studentsselect a medium other than televisionand write a paragraph explaining howthis medium can be either a positive or a negative influence on health. Askstudents to include specific examples intheir paragraphs.
Building Media LiteracyExplain how having unreliable healthinformation can be as dangerous ashaving no information. Then, havegroups of students find a few generalhealth Web sites that they think arereliable. Ask each group to share itsWeb sites and explain why they chosethese sites. Discuss which reasons aremost valid. Based on the discussion,have students make a list of guidelinesfor selecting reliable health Web sites.
Visual Learning: Figure 4Caption Answer Sample answer: Amedium such as television can supplyuseful health information, but reduce apersons level of physical fitness; X raysare a technology that allows doctors toprovide better treatment for injuries;having access to braces can preventfuture dental problems; a risky behavior,such as ignoring a safety warning, canlead to injuries or even death.
Focus On ISSUESFocus On ISSUES
Debate: Technology and HealthSelect two groups of students to present adebate about the influences of technologyon health. Have one group brainstorm afew positive influences of technology onhealth (e.g., improved access to healthinformation; various life-saving medicaltechnologies). Have the other group brain-storm negative influences (e.g., less exercise
due to labor-saving devices and motorvehicles; exposure to pollutants and toxinsfrom motor vehicles, power plants, and factories). Give the two groups a chance todebate the issue. Ask the other studentswhether they think the positive influencesoutweigh the negative influences.
8 Chapter 1
Media How much time each week do you spend watching television,listening to music, playing video games, or going to the movies? Do youread magazines or newspapers? What all these activities have in commonis that they involve media. are forms of communication that pro-vide news and entertainment. You may not realize that media can have apositive or negative influence on your health.
Think about television, for example. An average teen spends about 20 hours a week watching television. How can telev