PH Reverse Engineering

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Reverse Engneering

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<ul><li><p>REVERSE ENGINEERING OF LOCAL &amp; INTERNATIONAL SURVEYS ON CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINESA Project funded under the Transparent Accountable Governance (TAG) Project of The Asia Foundation with support from the United States Agency for International Development </p><p>April to June, 2006</p></li><li><p>BackgroundSeveral studies and surveys showing the Philippines as one of the most corrupt countries have been many times over quoted in media. These reports have painted the image of a graft-ridden country and a government seemingly powerless over corruptionThe most prominent of these agencies which regularly conducts studies on corruption in the Philippines are: Social Weather Stations, Inc.Pulse Asia, Inc.Ibon Foundation, Inc.Makati Business ClubPolitical Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) Ltd.Transparency International (TI)</p></li><li><p>RationaleThere is a need to review current studies and surveys being conducted measuring corruption in the Philippines. It would be important to know what their methodologies are, who their key respondents are, how they gather the data and how they analyze their data sets. It would be pertinent to mine the data generated by these studies and surveys. The information culled will aid both government and non-government agencies in zeroing in its efforts to address corruption on segments of the population most sensitive to this issue. It will give better directions as to where concentrated efforts to curb corruption are vital. It will pro-actively identify factors affecting perceptions of corruption and facets of corruption in the country and serve as a beacon to anti-corruption efforts.</p></li><li><p>Methods UsedGathering of materials, reports, raw data (both soft and hard copies if made accessible) from these respective institutions:Social Weather Stations (SWS)Pulse Asia Inc.IBON Foundation, Inc.Makati Business Club (MBC)Political Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) Transparency International (TI)</p></li><li><p>Methods Used (continued)Data gathering on whats available on the internet. The following websites were sources of many materials:www.sws.org.ph/www.pulseasia.com.ph/www.ibon.org/www.mbc.com.ph/www.asiarisk.com/ww1.transparency.org/www.transparency.ph/</p></li><li><p>Methods Used (continued)In-depth interviews with the following key informants:Mr. Robert Broadfoot, PERC Managing DirectorJudge Dolores Espanol, Transparency Intl RP Chapter Mr. Antonio Tujan Jr., Ibon Foundation, Inc. Ms. Rosario Bella Guzman, Ibon Foundation, Inc. Executive Director Mr. Edward Gacusana, MBC Sr. Research Associate &amp; CAC Proj. CoordinatorMr. Michael Mundo, MBC Sr. Research Associate &amp; Chief EconomistMs. Linda Luz Guerrero, SWS VP &amp; Chief Operating OfficerMr. Jay Sandoval, SWS Director of Sampling, Processing &amp; Data Archiving GroupMs. Germie Caron, SWS Field SpecialistMr. Jojo Carlom, Pulse Asia Statistics SupervisorMs. Zon Langrio, TNS-Trends Field Director Mr. Angel Almojuela, Asia Research Organization (ARO) President</p></li><li><p>Methods Used (continued)Review of written reportsSWS Survey of EnterprisesPulse Asia Ulat ng Bayan visualsPERC reportsTransparency International reportsFurther statistical analysis of raw data made available by:SWS and Pulse Asia</p></li><li><p>CaveatIn the course of talking with key informants from these various research institutions, some have expressed plans to further modify and make improvements in their methodologiesSince the review of the surveys included in the study was from April to June 2006, any changes and improvements made by the various research institutions in their methods of data gathering data processing and data analysis after this period cannot be reflected hereThe study does not intend to conclude which survey is more superior than others; rather it intends to give illumination on how these surveys are done and how the survey data can help in further advancing means of curbing corruption</p></li><li><p>SURVEYS ON CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINES WITH VOTING-AGE ADULTS AS RESPONDENTS</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Data Gathered</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Data Gathered (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Data Gathered (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Statistical Tools Used</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Highlights of Findings</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Highlights of Findings (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Highlights of Findings (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Highlights of Findings (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Public Dissemination</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Comments on SWS Methods Allocation for non-quota provinces in Balance Luzon &amp; Visayas should be reconsidered because this can slightly skew the sample since sampling done is not at the regional levelUrban area coverage using landmarks as starting points should be reviewed because it may tend to concentrate samples in urban centersSWS Urban coverage:Starting points are the ff: Municipal or brgy hall Public elem. school Brgy. Capt.s house Catholic church or chapel A separate group of Spot checkers (and not the Field Anchors) should be assigned to do quality control checks</p><p>LuzonVisayasMindanaoReg 11Reg 62Reg 91CAR/Reg21Reg 71Reg 101Reg 32Reg 81Caraga1Reg 43Non-quota1Reg 111Reg 51Reg 121Non-quota2ARMM1PROVINCES1056</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Comments on Pulse Asia MethodsIt may help to try and acquire the latest precinct maps of urban areas since 1990 COMELEC maps are still being usedReconsider random selection of barangays since populations may now greatly vary among barangays in a municipalityMonitoring of substitution rates may be necessary </p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Comments on IBON Survey Methods There is a great need to be cautious of results from surveys IBON conducts because of the following: Province selection does not consider population size No uniform instructions on how to select sample households Lack of a systematic means to select respondents in a household Little quality control mechanisms Having volunteers as interviewers may be disadvantageous to quality accomplishment of questionnaires Individual personal translations in the vernacular languages by interviewers can lead to biases No substitution or replacement rules Tendency to be a haphazard survey of housewives (not adults)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Comments on TI Surveys conducted by ARO Sample dispersion tends to be limited because of: restricted number of provinces, cities/municipalities, barangays covered shorter intervals applied between households when selecting them greater number of households are included in a specific sample area</p><p> Sample bias is for urban areas given that population sizes here are bigger and thus have a greater probability of being included. </p></li><li><p>Generalizations on the validity of the surveys SWS, Pulse Asia and ARO surveys can be considered scientific, valid measures of corruption with the following caveats: SWS results in urban areas would tend to be affected given their area coverage method here Pulse Asia results can be affected by high substitution rates ARO results should only be interpreted at the national level and its results may tend to reflect urban sentiments </p><p> IBON surveys cannot be claimed to represent opinions of Filipino adults</p></li><li><p>Insights from Data Results Statistical runs from available raw data indicate the ff: Trust in institutions is critical to managing public perceptions on anti-corruption efforts Media reports on corruption and media access have significant impacts on perceptions Younger adults are more susceptible to negative perceptions on corruption The upper and middle class tend to be most affected and most pessimistic about ability to resolve corruption Surveys by and large do not have an exhaustive framework for critically looking into all possible predictors of opinions on government anti-corruption efforts Survey items usually included are dependent on clients or sponsors (or even the institutions) priority needs for monitoring and are often restricted because of limited funding sources </p></li><li><p>SURVEYS ON CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINES WITH BUSINESS LEADERS AS RESPONDENTS</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or ExpatriatesIndependent Institutes: TI CPI Sources for RP data</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or ExpatriatesIndependent Institutes: TI CPI Sources for RP data (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or ExpatriatesIndependent Institutes: TI CPI Sources for RP data (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or ExpatriatesIndependent Institutes: TI CPI Sources for RP data (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Methods</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption among Businessmen or Expatriates: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption among Businessmen or Expatriates: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption among Businessmen or Expatriates: Methods (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption among Businessmen or Expatriates: Data Gathered (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption among Businessmen or Expatriates: Data Gathered (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption among Businessmen or Expatriates: Data Gathered (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Data Gathered (continued)</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Statistical Tools Used</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Highlights of Findings</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Highlights of Findings</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Highlights of Findings</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Public Dissemination</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Comments on SWS Methods Simple random sampling instead of a panel survey every round should be considered Should consider the use of weights when aggregating responses of the different study areas May want to pursue the use of the sealed-envelope technique in interviewing especially for sensitive issues on corruption</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Comments on MBC Methods May want to improve method of collecting data; there is a need to ensure that those who answer the forms are the MBC members and are not accomplished by secretaries or assistants Although response rates are decent, there is a need to ensure that profile of sample reflects actual demographics of MBC members; Those who did not respond may be significantly different from those who responded Should consider a more advanced method of tabulating responses to improve quality control Should consider archiving their data Can possibly make generalizations about MBC members opinions but not necessarily all businessmen</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Comments on PERC Methods Demographics like nationality, sector, industry, media access and sources of information or basis for opinions should also be monitored. Items like incidences of actual bribery experience or first-hand stories can also be included. Reports should be qualified as opinions of regional managers who are mostly based in HK and Singapore and/or Philippine expatriates Although response rates are decent, there is a need to ensure that profile of sample reflects actual demographics of regional managers and Philippine expatriates Reports tend to mix analysts expert opinion with data culled from surveys</p></li><li><p>Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates: Comments on TI-Phil. Methods Since independent institutions are the sources of the data, the differences in methods &amp; target respondents may have its effects But these effects seem to be negligible when scores were standardized, averaged and subjected to beta transformations as well as correlations to create a more reliable index, thus validating the reliability of the results It would be great if they could include predictors of perceptions or variables measuring impact of media attention and sources of information in their analysis of the results Varying cultural contexts across countries may have its effects on how incidences of corruption are reported </p></li><li><p>Generalizations on the validity of the surveys Not all the surveys follow strict probability methods for respondent selection Caution should be exercised for results of surveys whose response rates may be decent but are not validated with demographics of population under study Results should be qualified (or understood) as responses of a particular segment or type of businessmen and this differs for every institution conducting the surveys The consistency of patterns in responses across institutions (even if they have different types of respondents &amp; methods) somehow gives validity to the perceptions on corruption levels in the country</p></li><li><p>Insights from Data Results Media reports have a big impact on perceptions Word of mouth by colleagues and friends also affect perceptions When looking at the 2005 TI-CPI RP data, the high-low range of scores is 2.3 to 2.8, indicating variability in responses and RP ranking may actually be between 97 to 130 (117) but scores are still relatively low Status of high profile corruption cases easily gets the attention of analysts, businessmen, and expatriates Systems and efforts that will help sustain decreasing incidences of bribery in public transactions should be maintained</p></li><li><p>THE NATIONAL INTEGRITY SYSTEM (NIS)</p><p>A study by Transparency International- Philippines2006</p></li><li><p>BackgroundThe concept of the National Integrity System (NIS) has been developed and promoted by TI as part of its holistic approach to countering corruption. The NIS consists of the key institutions, laws and practices that contribute to integrity, transparency and accountability in a society. When it functions properly, the NIS combats corruption as part of the...</p></li></ul>