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Reverse Engneering

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  • REVERSE ENGINEERING OF LOCAL & INTERNATIONAL SURVEYS ON CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINESA Project funded under the Transparent Accountable Governance (TAG) Project of The Asia Foundation with support from the United States Agency for International Development

    April to June, 2006

  • BackgroundSeveral studies and surveys showing the Philippines as one of the most corrupt countries have been many times over quoted in media. These reports have painted the image of a graft-ridden country and a government seemingly powerless over corruptionThe most prominent of these agencies which regularly conducts studies on corruption in the Philippines are: Social Weather Stations, Inc.Pulse Asia, Inc.Ibon Foundation, Inc.Makati Business ClubPolitical Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) Ltd.Transparency International (TI)

  • RationaleThere is a need to review current studies and surveys being conducted measuring corruption in the Philippines. It would be important to know what their methodologies are, who their key respondents are, how they gather the data and how they analyze their data sets. It would be pertinent to mine the data generated by these studies and surveys. The information culled will aid both government and non-government agencies in zeroing in its efforts to address corruption on segments of the population most sensitive to this issue. It will give better directions as to where concentrated efforts to curb corruption are vital. It will pro-actively identify factors affecting perceptions of corruption and facets of corruption in the country and serve as a beacon to anti-corruption efforts.

  • Methods UsedGathering of materials, reports, raw data (both soft and hard copies if made accessible) from these respective institutions:Social Weather Stations (SWS)Pulse Asia Inc.IBON Foundation, Inc.Makati Business Club (MBC)Political Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) Transparency International (TI)

  • Methods Used (continued)Data gathering on whats available on the internet. The following websites were sources of many materials:www.sws.org.ph/www.pulseasia.com.ph/www.ibon.org/www.mbc.com.ph/www.asiarisk.com/ww1.transparency.org/www.transparency.ph/

  • Methods Used (continued)In-depth interviews with the following key informants:Mr. Robert Broadfoot, PERC Managing DirectorJudge Dolores Espanol, Transparency Intl RP Chapter Mr. Antonio Tujan Jr., Ibon Foundation, Inc. Ms. Rosario Bella Guzman, Ibon Foundation, Inc. Executive Director Mr. Edward Gacusana, MBC Sr. Research Associate & CAC Proj. CoordinatorMr. Michael Mundo, MBC Sr. Research Associate & Chief EconomistMs. Linda Luz Guerrero, SWS VP & Chief Operating OfficerMr. Jay Sandoval, SWS Director of Sampling, Processing & Data Archiving GroupMs. Germie Caron, SWS Field SpecialistMr. Jojo Carlom, Pulse Asia Statistics SupervisorMs. Zon Langrio, TNS-Trends Field Director Mr. Angel Almojuela, Asia Research Organization (ARO) President

  • Methods Used (continued)Review of written reportsSWS Survey of EnterprisesPulse Asia Ulat ng Bayan visualsPERC reportsTransparency International reportsFurther statistical analysis of raw data made available by:SWS and Pulse Asia

  • CaveatIn the course of talking with key informants from these various research institutions, some have expressed plans to further modify and make improvements in their methodologiesSince the review of the surveys included in the study was from April to June 2006, any changes and improvements made by the various research institutions in their methods of data gathering data processing and data analysis after this period cannot be reflected hereThe study does not intend to conclude which survey is more superior than others; rather it intends to give illumination on how these surveys are done and how the survey data can help in further advancing means of curbing corruption

  • SURVEYS ON CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINES WITH VOTING-AGE ADULTS AS RESPONDENTS

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Methods (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Data Gathered

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Data Gathered (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Data Gathered (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Statistical Tools Used

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Highlights of Findings

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Highlights of Findings (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Highlights of Findings (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Highlights of Findings (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Public Dissemination

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Comments on SWS Methods Allocation for non-quota provinces in Balance Luzon & Visayas should be reconsidered because this can slightly skew the sample since sampling done is not at the regional levelUrban area coverage using landmarks as starting points should be reviewed because it may tend to concentrate samples in urban centersSWS Urban coverage:Starting points are the ff: Municipal or brgy hall Public elem. school Brgy. Capt.s house Catholic church or chapel A separate group of Spot checkers (and not the Field Anchors) should be assigned to do quality control checks

    LuzonVisayasMindanaoReg 11Reg 62Reg 91CAR/Reg21Reg 71Reg 101Reg 32Reg 81Caraga1Reg 43Non-quota1Reg 111Reg 51Reg 121Non-quota2ARMM1PROVINCES1056

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Comments on Pulse Asia MethodsIt may help to try and acquire the latest precinct maps of urban areas since 1990 COMELEC maps are still being usedReconsider random selection of barangays since populations may now greatly vary among barangays in a municipalityMonitoring of substitution rates may be necessary

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Comments on IBON Survey Methods There is a great need to be cautious of results from surveys IBON conducts because of the following: Province selection does not consider population size No uniform instructions on how to select sample households Lack of a systematic means to select respondents in a household Little quality control mechanisms Having volunteers as interviewers may be disadvantageous to quality accomplishment of questionnaires Individual personal translations in the vernacular languages by interviewers can lead to biases No substitution or replacement rules Tendency to be a haphazard survey of housewives (not adults)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Voting-Age Adults: Comments on TI Surveys conducted by ARO Sample dispersion tends to be limited because of: restricted number of provinces, cities/municipalities, barangays covered shorter intervals applied between households when selecting them greater number of households are included in a specific sample area

    Sample bias is for urban areas given that population sizes here are bigger and thus have a greater probability of being included.

  • Generalizations on the validity of the surveys SWS, Pulse Asia and ARO surveys can be considered scientific, valid measures of corruption with the following caveats: SWS results in urban areas would tend to be affected given their area coverage method here Pulse Asia results can be affected by high substitution rates ARO results should only be interpreted at the national level and its results may tend to reflect urban sentiments

    IBON surveys cannot be claimed to represent opinions of Filipino adults

  • Insights from Data Results Statistical runs from available raw data indicate the ff: Trust in institutions is critical to managing public perceptions on anti-corruption efforts Media reports on corruption and media access have significant impacts on perceptions Younger adults are more susceptible to negative perceptions on corruption The upper and middle class tend to be most affected and most pessimistic about ability to resolve corruption Surveys by and large do not have an exhaustive framework for critically looking into all possible predictors of opinions on government anti-corruption efforts Survey items usually included are dependent on clients or sponsors (or even the institutions) priority needs for monitoring and are often restricted because of limited funding sources

  • SURVEYS ON CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINES WITH BUSINESS LEADERS AS RESPONDENTS

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or Expatriates

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or ExpatriatesIndependent Institutes: TI CPI Sources for RP data

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or ExpatriatesIndependent Institutes: TI CPI Sources for RP data (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or ExpatriatesIndependent Institutes: TI CPI Sources for RP data (continued)

  • Surveys on Corruption conducted among Businessmen or ExpatriatesIndependent In

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