philosophy: Sophists, Socrates, Plato

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<ul><li><p>8/2/2019 philosophy: Sophists, Socrates, Plato</p><p> 1/3</p><p>The Sophists</p><p>The professional teachers providing instruction and guidance fir success in practical affairs</p><p>They specialized in using the tools of philosophy and Rhetoric for the purpose of teaching arete</p><p>(excellence, or virtue)</p><p>Rhetoric is the art and study of the use of language with persuasive effect</p><p>The sophists shifted the concerns of philosophy to the study of human cognition</p><p>The real world is quite different from the phenomenal world</p><p>The Sophists took for the standard the opinions of the individual</p><p>Absolute knowledge is impossible</p><p>All understanding is subjective</p><p>Truth is no more than opinion</p><p>Any opinion can be judged only by its practical utility</p><p>Protagoras</p><p>"Man is the measure of all things, of those which are that they are and of those which are not that they are</p><p>not."</p><p>For man the world is what it appear to him to be, not something else</p><p>There are 2 criteria for truth</p><p>The opinion of the individual</p><p> The practical utility of knowledgeKnowledge is subjective</p><p>Moral judgments are relative</p><p>Everything is true</p><p>The true aim of human thought is to serve human needs</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 philosophy: Sophists, Socrates, Plato</p><p> 2/3</p><p>Socratesa classical Greek philosopher one of the founders of Western philosophy</p><p>The Apology ("defense-speech)</p><p>It is Plato's account of Socrates' defense at his trial</p><p>Socrates wrote nothing because he felt that knowledge was a living, interactive thing</p><p>Xenophon, Plato and others wrote Socratic dialogues portraying his teaching in literary form</p><p>Socrates was the first philosopher to shift the focus away from the natural world to human values</p><p>Socrates was interested in the practical use of reason</p><p>Socrates tried to find the basis for stable and certain knowledge</p><p>The way to attain reliable knowledge is based on the practice ofconversation</p><p>Dialectic method of inquiry or the Socratic method</p><p>It is a negative method of truth-seeking, in that truth is found by steadily identifying and eliminating that</p><p>which is not true</p><p>Socrates' method of philosophical inquiry consisted in questioning people on the positions they asserted and</p><p>working them through questions into a contradiction, thus proving to them that their original assertion was</p><p>wrong</p><p>Socrates himself never takes a position</p><p>This method of questioning is elenchus or "cross-examination"</p><p>The Socratic elenchus gave rise to dialecticIt is the idea that truth needs to be pursued by modifying one's position through questioning and conflict</p><p>with opposing ideas</p><p>It was designed to force one to examine one's own beliefs and the validity of such beliefs</p><p>Socrates showed the value of self-knowledge</p><p>The highest form of Human Excellence is to question oneself and others</p><p>The instrument of clear thought is a definition</p><p>Only true knowledge is knowledge of concepts</p><p>What it is that makes men say that a certain thing or action is good or beautiful?</p><p>What people are looking at when they make such statements?</p><p>It is the Eidos, or the Idea</p><p>that a person has before him when he calls something "good or beautiful.There is something into things that never varied and never passed away</p><p>It is Idea of something (EIDOS)</p><p>Socrates did not separate Ideas from things</p><p>By the process of definition the mind can distinguish between two objects of thought</p><p> The particular The general (the Idea of something)Socrates distinguished two levels of knowledge</p><p> One is based upon the inspection of facts The other is based on interpretation of factsTeleology is a view that things have a function or purpose</p><p>Plato regarded Socrates as the father ofethics or moral philosophy,and hence philosophy in general</p><p>Knowledge is virtue</p><p>The best life comes from taking the best care to make oneself as good as possible, and the happiest people</p><p>are those who are most conscious they are getting better</p><p>All of the virtues must be cultivated together</p><p> human wisdom begins with the recognition of one's own ignorance the unexamined life is not worth living ethical virtue is the only thing that matters a good person can never be harmed, because whatever misfortune he may suffer, his virtue willremain intact</p></li><li><p>8/2/2019 philosophy: Sophists, Socrates, Plato</p><p> 3/3</p><p>Plato</p><p>In about 387 Plato founded the Academy as an institute for the systematic pursuit of philosophical and</p><p>scientific teaching and research</p><p>Philosophical education consists of intellectual activity including mathematics astronomy geometry music</p><p>The 1st</p><p>group of dialogues (Socratic dialogues) includes the problems ofEthics</p><p>The 2nd</p><p>group of dialogues includes the theory of knowledge</p><p>Plato brought together all the major concerns of human thought into a whole and clear organization of</p><p>knowledge</p><p>Myth of the cave in the 7th</p><p>book of Politeia: He who sees with his eyes is blind</p><p>Reality is unavailable to those who use their senses</p><p>What is the really real? What is knowable and what is real? What is the nature of ultimate reality and how</p><p>we come to know it?</p><p>Plato tried to discover the ultimate constituents of reality and the grounds for our knowledge of them</p><p>Sensescant be trusted. What we experience through senses is illusion</p><p>The real things if they exist must be: unchangeable, not be accessible to the senses</p><p>The really existing things of the world are not of this world but of someplace else</p><p>There are 2 worlds: the intelligible world of Ideas and the visible world of things</p><p>The world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only an image or copy of the real worldA world of Ideas (a world beyond that of the senses) All of the things that men perceive with their senses</p><p>appear to be but very imperfect copies of the eternal Ideas</p><p>The Forms are eternal, unchangeable patterns, of which the particular objects of sense are imperfect copies</p><p>Forms are related to particulars in that a particular is regarded as a copy of its form</p><p> A particular apple is a copy of the form ofApplehood. The apple's redness is an instance of the form ofRedness</p><p>Participation is another relationship between forms and particulars</p><p>Platonic Epistemology</p><p>Men, in construing a system of knowledge, constantly prefer what is more perfect to what is less perfect</p><p>Four states of mind</p><p>Imagining is the sense experience of appearances wherein these appearances are taken as true realityBeliefis induced by the seeing of actual object</p><p>Imagining and Belief are only opinions</p><p>Thinking represents the power of mind to abstract from the visible world</p><p>When a person moves from believing to thinking, he moves from the visible world to the intelligible world,</p><p>from the realm of opinion to the realm of knowledge</p><p>Knowledge is the apprehension of unchanging Forms and their relationships to one another</p><p>The knowledge must be present in an eternal, non-experiential form</p><p>The Platonic doctrine of recollection or anamnesis</p><p>Souls are born with the concepts of the Forms</p><p>The soul once lived in "Reality It once knew everything, but forgot it</p><p>Knowledge is acquired by Recollection/ The goal of Recollection is to get back to true knowledgeKnowledge is innate.</p><p>It is a matter of recollection, but not of learning, observation, or study</p><p>"Plato believed that ideas were far more real than the natural world.</p><p>He advised the astronomers not to waste their time observing the stars and planets. It was better, he believed,</p><p>just to think about them (Carl Sagan)</p></li></ul>

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