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Photography Design Elements Photography Design Principles Photography Compositional Structures Slide 2 Design Elements The Design Elements form the basic vocabulary of Visual Design. They create interest through an image by creating focal points to draw your eye to. We think of the elements as the basic visual material with which to make art. Slide 3 Line *Line is the most simplest building blocks. Line can be used to portray a sense of movement throughout an image or lead your eye to a subject within a photograph. *Line is not limited by straight lines but many photos have curved lines, or zig zag lines, such as roads as they bend and even foot paths that wind. *Line can be real for instance an outline or can be implied for instance a flock of birds flying in a V formation Slide 4 Slide 5 Tone *Most black and white images contain a range of tonal gradations. Tone is evident in both colour and black and white photographs. *An image that is rich in tone can appear much more realistic. Tone provides an image with a certain three dimensionality. Slide 6 Slide 7 Contrast * Contrast in a black and white image refers to the difference between black and white. *An image that has a low tonal range can be high in contrast. The less tone in an image the more contrast it has. *In a colour image, contrast can arise when there are not many colours present in the image. *The use of contrast can create a sense of harshness, and can make an image appear bold and graphic. Slide 8 Slide 9 Shape *Shape is an area enclosed by lines or curves. It can be geometric or organic. A shape automatically creates a negative space around it. *Shapes can be familiar for instance circles, triangles and rectangles. *Shapes can be used to create pattern and provide the viewer with a sense of harmony. Slide 10 Slide 11 Form *Form can be created by forming two or more shapes. Form is considered three dimensional showing height, width and depth. *Tone is often presented when looking at an image displaying form. Form assists in creating realism within a photographic image. Slide 12 Slide 13 Texture *Texture refers to the surface of the way in which something looks an feels. You can detect texture with your five senses. *Texture can enhance the visual appeal of an image, by enhancing tactile qualities as well as creating realism and a sense of three dimensionality. *Some examples include prickly grass sheets on a wall, white rocky pebbles imbedded in concrete, scaly and dry snake skin. Slide 14 Slide 15 Colour * Colour is the most expensive element of art and is seen by the way light reflects off a surface. *Colour is used to create illusion, depth, and appeal to visual senses. *Cooler colours recede ( go back in to the distance) and warmer colours advance (come forward) Slide 16 Slide 17 Colour *Colour can be used to draw the attention to parts of the image and can be used to create visual harmony. *Colours can also be contrasting within an image which can often create added interest * Black and white are not colours but are considered shades Slide 18 Colour Harmony/Unity Slide 19 Slide 20 Contrasting Colours Slide 21 Colour * There are three four terms that we associate with colour Hue: The pure or true colour, Red/Blue/Green/Yellow are all hues Tint: A tint is a hue with added white to lighten it Shade: A shade is a hue with added black to darken it Saturation: Saturation intensifies or dilutes a hue Slide 22 Colour Wheel Slide 23 Colour Colours can have a variety of relationships *Warm Colours (Advancing colours) Includes yellows, oranges. reds *Cool Colours (Receding colours) Includes blues, greens, purples Warm & Cool colours appeal to human emotions Slide 24 Colours that recede and advance Slide 25 Colour Primary Colours (Colours that can not be achieved by mixing colours) Are Red, Blue, and Yellow Secondary colours (Colours that are made by mixing two primary colours together) Are Orange, Green, Purple Analogous Colours (Help us relate similar colours). They are next to each other on the colour wheel. There are three or more colours in an analogous run. For instance Purple, pink, and red Slide 26 Analogous Run Slide 27 Analogous Warm Colours Slide 28 Analogous cool colours Slide 29 Colour Monochromatic Colours ( Monochromatic schemes have only one colour) In Greek Mono means only one and chroma means colour. For instance yellow Achromatic colours ( Achromatic colour schemes only include, black, whites or greys. In greek A means none and chroma means colour. For instance an image made up of Greys, Dark Greys, Blacks and Whites and Light Greys Slide 30 Monochromatic Colour Slide 31 Achromatic photograph Slide 32 Design Principles The Design Elements form the basic vocabulary of Visual Design. They create interest through an image by creating focal points to draw your eye to. We think of the elements as the basic visual material with which to make art. Slide 33 Symmetry The concept of symmetry is related to visual balance in art. Symmetry occurs when an image is split in to two and both halves are identical. Symmetry presents a mirror image. For example a butterfly has symmetry or is symmetrical, because one wing matches the other. Symmetry is designed to create a visual sense of balance within an image. Slide 34 Slide 35 Asymmetry Asymmetry occurs when an image is split in to two and both halves are not identical. When an image is not the same on both sides it is said to be asymmetrical, because on half of the image does not present a mirror image of the other half. Asymmetry is designed to create a visual interest and variety. It can often cause an image to appear imbalanced. Asymmetry can also create a juxtaposition of objects within the frame pitting one side against the other. Slide 36 Slide 37 Framing Framing is a technique used to bring the viewers eye to a point of interest, also known as the focal point. It involves the idea of composing your subject with a frame around it. A photographic frame is something that acts as a border or frame for your subject. The use of framing can also create perspective and depth. An example of framing would be a subject standing in a doorway. The doorway would be acting like a frame to the subject. Slide 38 Slide 39 Cropping The idea of cropping is to focus in on an area. An image can often be filed with objects that are unimportant to the overall message or meaning of the image. In order to simplify the photograph open format cropping can be used.. This can be effective when creating portraits as it can often provide a closer and much more intimate view of the subject. Overall cropping provides an intensified and much closer point of view. Slide 40 Slide 41 Repetition/Rhythm Repetition and rhythm are the repeating parts within a design, such as shapes colours or lines. Repetition involves using similar things over and over again. Rhythm on the other hand uses repetition to create a pattern. Repetition and rhythm are just as important to art as they are to music. Repetition is like the beat and Rhythm is like the melody. Our ears pick out the beat but follow the melody. Repetition can create reinforcement within a image whilst rhythm can create a flow, and allow your eyes to be guided by it. Slide 42 Slide 43 Composition The term composition refers to the way in which the elements and principles are arranged within the frame. Think of a landscape photograph as a jig saw puzzle, with dozens of different pieces demanding your attention. If you arrange all those pieces in the right order youll end up with an organised, structured image that makes sense and looks good. But if you put them together in any old way it will look like a muddled mess, and will become difficult to make sense of. Slide 44 Composition Composition is all about arranging the elements of a scene in your cameras viewfinder so they form something visually interesting to look at. Every time you raise the camera to your eye you are composing a picture the very act of deciding about what you want to include and what to exclude in the picture. As a photographer take the time to think about the composition before shooting away. Slide 45 Think about your composition Slide 46 Compositional Structures Compositional structures help create a sense of order within your images. There are generally three compositional structures that make up most of the images we see in the media. 1.CENTRAL COMPOSITION 2.RULE OF THIRDS 3. GOLDEN SECTION Slide 47 Central Composition Placing an object in the centre of the frame is perhaps the most powerful compositional structure. Central composition is said to have the most visual impact when looking at a photograph because all the focus is drawn in to the centre of the frame. Having an object placed in the centre of the frame demands the viewers attention and is the strongest compositional structure. Slide 48 Slide 49 Rule of thirds The rule of thirds is one of the most popular rules in photography. Imaginary lines are drawn dividing the image into thirds both horizontally and vertically. You place important elements of your composition where these lines intersect. The main focal point can be placed within one or more of the intersect points. However if one object is placed within every intersect point it then creates central composition. Slide 50 Slide 51 Slide 52 Golden Section This refers to the ratio of 5:8 within an image. This often applies to landscape, where there is a smaller portion of land to sky within an image or vice versa. This compositional structure is said to appear to the viewer as peaceful and does not tend to challenge the viewer when viewing the image. Slide 53 Slide 54 Slide 55 Major Practical Assignment