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  • 1. History of Photography

2. Before the camera was invented and the history of Photography began, the knowledge of colour and the context of a photograph had to be understood. In the 5th-4th Century Chinese and Greek philosophers reviewed the basics of optics and the camera, and the secrets of light. The word "Photography" is continued from the Greek words photos ("light") and graphein ("to draw"). The word was firstly used by a scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. Photography is a way of recording images by the action of light as the related radiation is reflected on a sensitive material. THE START 3. The first pinhole camera was invented by a man called Alhazen. Alhazen was a middle ages man who lived around 1000A. He was able to reveal why the image was upside down when the photograph was taken. He described the optic law that made pinhole cameras possible by observing Artistole around 330 BC, who wondered how the sun made a circular image when a square hole was shined on. This discovery opened doors into the world of photography and cameras. 1500 4. On a summer day in 1827, Joseph Nicephore Niepce made the first photographic image with a camera obscura. 1837 A Frenchman, Louis Daguerre was not the only man who was experimenting to find a way to capture an image. But it would take him a huge amount of time before Daguerre was able to reduce exposure time to less than 30 minutes and keep the image from disappearing afterwards. 1827 5. The Daguerreotype Camera was released by the French Academy of Sciences. This camera was the most expensive invention at the time . It was In 1839, after several years of experimentation and Niepce's death, Daguerre developed a more convenient and effective method of photography, naming it after himself - the daguerreotype. Daguerre's process 'fixed' the photographs onto a sheet of silver-plated copper. He then refined the silver and covered it in iodine, making a surface that was sensitive to light. Then, he laid the plate in a camera and exposed it for a few minutes. When the image was painted by light, Daguerre bathed the plate in a solution of silver chloride. This process created a permanent image, one that would not change if exposed to light. In 1839, Daguerre and Niepce's son sold the rights for the daguerreotype to the French government published a booklet describing the procedure. The daguerreotype gained popularity quickly; by 1850, there were over seventy daguerreotype studios in New York City alone. 1838-1839 6. Wet Plate Negatives Tintypes where discovered in 1856 by Hamilton Smith and they were another source that heralded the birth of photography. A thin sheet of iron was used to provide a base for light-sensitive material while yielding a positive image. In 1851, Frederick Scoff Archer, an English sculptor, invented the wet plate negative. Using a viscous solution of collusion, he covered glass with light-sensitive silver salts. Because it was glass and not paper, this wet plate created a more stable and detailed negative. Photography advanced considerably when sensitized materials could be coated on plate glass. However, wet plates had to be developed quickly before the emulsion dried. In the field this meant carrying along a portable darkroom. 1851 7. The Great Exhibition Great Britain tought to provide the world with the hope of a better future. Europe had just struggled through "two difficult decades of political and social upheaval," and now Great Britain hoped to show that technology, particularly its own, was the key to a better future. 8. Dry Plate Negatives & Hand-held Cameras In 1879, the dry plate was invented, a glass negative plate with a dried gelatine emulsion. Dry plates could be stored for a longer time. Photographers no longer needed portable darkrooms and could now hire technicians to develop their photographs. Dry processes absorbed light quickly so rapidly that the hand-held camera was now possible. 1879 9. The first flexible roll films, dating to 1889, were made of cellulose nitrate, which is chemically similar to guncotton. A nitrate-based film will deteriorate over time, releasing oxidants and acidic gasses. It is also highly flammable. Special storage for this film is required. Nitrate film is historically important because it allowed for the development of roll films. The first flexible movie films measured 35- mm wide and came in long rolls on a spool. In the mid-1920s, using this technology, 35-mm roll film was developed for the camera. By the late 1920s, medium-format roll film was created. It measured six centimetres wide and had a paper backing making it easy to handle in daylight. 1889 10. The Raisecamera (also called the Travel Camera) was invented. Extreme light weight and small dimensions when it is folded. This made a photo camera the most desirable thing for landscape photographers. 35mm Cameras As early as 1905, Oskar Barnack had the idea of reducing the format of film negatives and then expanding the photographs after they had been exposed. As development manager at Leica, he was able to put his theory into practice. He took an instrument for taking exposure samples for cinema film and turned it into the world's first 35 mm camera: the 'Ur-Leica'. 1900 11. The first 35mm still camera (also called candid camera ) developed by Oskar Barnack of German Leica Camera. Later it became the standard for all film cameras. 1913/14 World War 1 More than 9 million combatants were killed: a scale of death impacted by industrial advancements, geographic stalemate and reliance on human wave attacks. 12. 1919 Constructivism Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919, which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art. The movement was in favor of art as a practice for social purposes. Constructivism had a great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing major trends such as Bauhaus and De Still movement. Its influence was pervasive, with major impacts upon architecture, graphic and industrial design, theatre, film, dance, fashion and to some extent music. 13. 1920s Surrealism Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality. 14. 1920s Dada The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, artt manifestoes, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works 15. 1932 Straight Photography Pure photography or straight photography refers to photography that attempts to depict a scene as realistically and objectively as permitted by the medium, renouncing the use of manipulation. 16. 1932 Group f/64 Group f/64 was a group of seven 20th-century San Francisco photographers who shared a common photographic style characterized by sharp-focused and carefully framed images seen through a particularly Western (U.S.) viewpointt. Emphasis was placed on "pure" photography, sharp images, maximum depth-of-field, smooth glossy printing paper, emphasizing the unique qualities of the photographic process. 17. 1935 The Farm Security Administration Photography has made a change in the documentry of history as the stuggles of farm life was captured in a still photograph. It New Deal programs designed to assist poor farmers during the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. Roy Emerson Stryker was the head of a special photographic section in the RA and FSA from 1935-1942. 18. 1939 World War II It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people, from over 30 different countries, serving in military units. Stephen G. Fritz. 19. 1955 The Family of Man The photographs included in the exhibition focus on the commonalities that bind people and cultures around the world and the exhibition itself served as an expression of humanism in the decade following World War II 20. Sony demonstrates the Sony Mavica the worlds first digital electronic still camera. Digital photography and television images are related to the same technology, so this camera recorded images into a mini disk and then put them into a video reader. Images could be displayed to a television monitor or color printer. 1981 21. Pictrolism It is a style in which the photographer has somehow manipulated what would otherwise be a straightforward photograph as a means of "creating" an image rather than simply recording it. 19th 20th century 22. Abstract Abstract artusesavisuallanguageofform,colorandlinetocreatea compositionwhichmayexistwithadegreeofindependencefrom visualreferencesintheworld 19th/20thcentury 23. Kodakreleasedthefirstprofessionaldigitalcamerasystem(DCS) whichwasofagreatuseforphotojournalists.ItwasamodifiedNikon F-3camerawitha1.3megapixelsensor. Disposable Camera Fujiintroducedthedisposablecamerain1986.Wecallthem disposablesbutthepeoplewhomakethesecameraswantyoutoknow thatthey'recommittedtorecyclingtheparts,amessagethey've attemptedtoconveybycallingtheirproducts"single-usecameras." 1994-1996 Thefirstdigitalcamerasfortheconsumer-levelmarketthatworked withahomecomputerviaaserialcableweretheApple. 1991 24. FirstcamerainaMobilephone InJapaneseSharpsJ-SH04introducedtheworldsfirstcameraphone. 2005 DigitalCameras TheCanonEOS5Dislaunched.Thisisfirstconsumer-pricedfull- framedigitalSLRwitha24x36mmCMOSsensor. 2000 25. 7 TheworldofPhotographyhadalongjourneyofbecomingso convenientandfasttoproduce.In2013newtechnologyhasbeen developingeveryyearandcamerasandphotographscanbetakenona hugerangeofdevices. 2013