photography vocab & history

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Photography: the art or process of producing images by the action of radiant energy and especially light on a sensitive surface

The word "photography" derives from the Greek and means, literally, light writing

Viewfinder: small window on a camera through which the scene is viewed.

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display): a low-power monitor often used on the top and/or rear of a digital camera to display settings or the photo itself.

Shutter: a camera mechanism that opens and closes to allow light to enter the camera for a specific amount of time in order to expose the film.

Shutter Speed: a measurement of how long a cameras shutter remains open as the picture is taken. The slower the shutter speed, the longer the exposure time. The shutter speed and aperture together control the total amount of light reaching the sensor.

Lens: piece (or multiple pieces) of optical glass that is shaped to focus an image.

JPEG (JPG): standard for compressing image data developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group, hence the name JPEG.

Focus: point where light converges to form a clear, sharp image.

Megabyte (MB): measurement of data storage equal to 1024 kilobytes (KB).

Pixel: digital photographs are comprised of thousands or millions of them; they are the building blocks of a digital photo. The number of pixels or dots per inch (ppi or dpi) determine the images resolution.

DPI (Dots Per Inch): used in digital imaging to indicate an aspect of an image's measurable resolution. The higher the number, the greater the resolution.

Resolution: subjective valuation of the detail-recording ability of photographic materials. 72 dpi is a low resolution and 300 dpi is a high resolution. The higher the resolution the better the quality of the image.

Megabyte (MB): measurement of data storage equal to 1024 kilobytes (KB).

Camera ObscuraDigital Single-Lens Reflex CameraA Brief History of Photography

Camera ObscuraLatin for darkroom

an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings one of the inventions that led to photography consists of a box or room with a hole in one side, light from an external scene passes through the hole and strikes a surface inside where it is reproduced, upside-down.

1826: First Permanent ImageFrench inventor Joseph Nicphore Nipce uses a camera obscura to burn an image of the French countryside onto a chemical-coated pewter plate He named his technique "heliography," meaning "sun drawing" The black-and-white exposure took eight hours and has faded significantly, but an image is still visible on the plate today

1839: First Photo of a Person

French painter and chemist Louis Daguerre photographs a Paris street scene using a camera obscura and his newly invented daguerreotype processThe long exposure time (several minutes) means moving objects like pedestrians and carriages don't appear in the photo, but an unidentified man who stops for a shoeshine remains still long enough to unwittingly become the first person ever photographed


early type of photograph, developed by Louis DaguerreImage exposed onto a mirror-polished surface of silver with a coating of silver halide particles on ita negative image, but the mirrored surface of the metal plate reflects the image and makes it appear positive in the proper lightdaguerreotype is a direct photographic process can not be duplicated

CalotypeGreek for good impressionprocess introduced in 1841 by Henry Fox Talbot using paper coated with silver iodidewhen exposed to light, silver iodide decomposes to silver leaving iodinewhen silver iodide is washed away the resulting image is visible

Collodion1851, Englishman Frederick Scott Archer discovered that collodion could be used on glass plates, reducing the exposure time when making the imageprocess was very involved and included the following steps: clean the glass plate, flow the glass plate with Collodion, immerse the plate in a silver nitrate for 3-5 minutes, expose the plate, develop the plate, and fix the plateall done in minutes in a portable darkroom

Gelatin EmulsionRichard Leach Maddox, an English photographer, invented lightweight gelatin negative plates in 1871eventually Charles Bennett made the first gelatin dry platesbefore long the emulsion could be coated on celluloid roll filmphotographers could use dry plates off the shelf instead of having to prepare their own in a mobile darkroomnow, for the first time, cameras could be made small enough to be hand-held

Kodaks Brownie

extremely popular series of simple and inexpensive cameras made by Eastman Kodakpopularized low-cost photography and introduced the concept of the snapshotfirst Brownie, introduced in February, 1900, was basic cardboard box camera with a simple lens that took 2-inch square pictures on 117 roll filmsimple controls and initial price of $1, it was intended to be a camera that anyone could afford and use, leading to the popular slogan, "You push the button, we do the rest."

Going Digital1969 Willard Boyle and George Smith at AT&T Bell Labs invented a charge-coupled device (CCD), the essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor1975 Bryce Bayer of Kodak develops the Bayer filter mosaic pattern for CCD color image sensors1975 Steven Sasson (engineer at Kodak) made the first recorded attempt at building a digital camera. The camera weighed 8 pounds, recorded B&W images to a cassette tape, had a resolution of 0.01 megapixels, and took 23 seconds to capture its first image.

The First Digital Cameras1988 first true digital camera that recorded images as a computerized file was the Fuji DS-1P, which recorded to a 16MB internal memory card that used a battery to keep the data in memory1990 first commercially available digital camera was the Dycam Model1, stored pictures digitally, and connected directly to a computer for download1991 Kodak brought to market the Kodak DCS-100, the beginning of a long line of professional digital cameras. It used a 1.3megapixel sensor and was priced at $13,0001997 first megapixel cameras for consumers1999 introduction of the Nikon D1, a 2.74 megapixel camera at a cost of under $6,000Today a Nikon D3200 camera with 27.4 megapixels costs around $400

Photo History SketchbookPart 1: Research Famous, Influential, and Historic PhotographersFind 10 whose work you likeIn your sketchbook include:Their name (properly spelled)What type or style photographer they are (i.e fashion, landscape, portrait, etc.)What you like about their work

Part 2: Look online or think about photographs you likeFind one that you REALLY like, maybe a favorite photographSave and print itGlue it into your sketchbook and write couple of sentences about why you like it, what you like about it, etc