physical geography of russia andcentralasia

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http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html

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Physical Geography of Russia and Central Asia

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Slide 1

http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html

taigaTaiga refers to a nearly continuous belt of evergreen coniferous forests across the Northern Hemisphere, including Russia. This is the largest forest in the world.WildLife photography in Siberia and Central Asia by Oleg Kosterin used with permissionhttp://pisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/landscap/altai/chuiskaya2.htm

steppeSteppe is the term used for the temperate grassland regions in the Northern Hemisphere.WildLife photography in Siberia and Central Asia by Oleg Kosterin used with permissionpisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/landscap/ altai/chuiskaya2.htm

chernozemChernozem is black topsoil, one of the worlds most fertile soils. Chernozem is found in the north European plain in Ukraine and Russia.

http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/faculties/SS/GEOG/Virtual/SoilOrders/soilorders.htmlUsed with permission

tundraTundra is the term for the flat, treeless lands forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean. In the tundra, the climate is extremely cold.http://faculty.washington.edu/lyn4/images/tundra.jpgUsed with permission. Photo is the property of Lyn Gualtieri, University of Washington http://www.creekbed.com/descanso-townhall/images/tundra.jpgPermission requested

permafrostPermafrost is permanently frozen soil found where the ground temperature remains below 0C. It exists where summer heating fails to reach the base of the layer of frozen ground. http://www.netl.doe.gov/scng/hydrate/about-hydrates/arctic-regions.htmNo copyright

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/FrozenSoils/Images/frozenground.gif

This NASA image of the Northern Hemisphere shows the areas of permafrost the tundra regions of Asia, Europe, and North America.permafrost or permanently frozen ground

Buildings built on permafrost may collapse when the heat generated by the building thaws the ground. The photo above is an example of what can happen to a building built on ground that is permanently frozen. Houses in Siberia are often built on stilts so this will not happen.http://henkbinnendijk.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/dawsonpermafrosthouses700x460.jpg Used with permission

The Aral Sea is becoming a desert because water is being diverted from rivers that feed it. The diverted water is being used to irrigate the cotton fields in Uzbekistan.The wind blows the sand, which is contaminated with fertilizers and pesticides, into the nearby villages, where it causes serious illnesses. The Sea is so polluted from run-off that the fish have died.

irrigationTo irrigate is to supply (dry land) with water by means of ditches, pipes, or tubes.http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/slides/Prfiles.htmNo copyright

divert(To divert is to turn aside from a course or direction.)Water is diverted from streams to irrigation canals in order to irrigate the cotton fields in the Aral Sea drainage basin.Irrigation Channelhttp://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/art/photography/workers/misc/cotton-pickers.jpgUsed with permission

Other factors that influence the geography of Russia and Central AsiaMany rivers flow northward into the Arctic Ocean. They are frozen most of the year.Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world. It contains 20 percent of the Earths fresh water supply.St. Petersburg is the window to the West and gives the Russians a port on the Baltic Sea.