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Physiological Systems. Respiratory System. Made up of: Nose, mouth, throat and lungs Major Function: Bring O2 into the body and remove CO2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Physiological Systems

Physiological Systems

5/17/2012 10:14 AM 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

1Respiratory SystemMade up of: Nose, mouth, throat and lungsMajor Function: Bring O2 into the body and remove CO2

How does it work: Oxygen is inhaled down through the bronchi and into the alveoli of the lungs- from there it is transferred into the blood. CO2 transferred from the blood through to the lungs and out of the body.

Respiratory SystemResponse to Exercise:Breathing occurs faster and more deeply- This allows more oxygen to be inhaled and transferred to the blood and to the muscles. The oxygen is used to help fuel the muscles for exercise

The HeartMade up of: Four chambers (upper 2 chambers called atria, bottom 2 called ventricles)Major Function: Pump blood around the body. Does this by squeezing blood out of the ventricles.

Where the blood goes once it leaves the heart:

Leaves heart through large vessel called the aorta

Goes out to muscles and organs where they take the oxygen out of blood

Blood returns to heart and lungs to be re-oxygenated

The HeartResponse to Exercise:During exercise muscles require more oxygen, therefore the heart works harder by beating faster per minute and harder by pumping more blood out with each beat

Exercise Effects

SHORT TERMIncrease in heart rate:As exercise intensity increases so does the demand for energy in the muscles. The energy is transported in the bloodstream so therefore the heart has to increase its blood flow (pump rate) to meet the greater demand.

Increase in breathing rate:Similar to the answer above, as intensity increases so does the demand for energy. Oxygen is the primary base of energy required for muscles. So with the increase in demand the lungs need to increase its supply of oxygen to match the exceeded energy demands.SHORT TERMSweating:As the muscles contract more with the increasing intensity they create friction which causes them to heat up. The heat then causes the body to become hotter. With the increase in heat, the body attempts to combat it by releasing sweat.

Redding in face:Following on from above, once muscles have contracted they begin to heat up, creating higher temperatures in them. This causes the muscles to redden with the heat (and more blood flow). The face has very superficial muscles due to the shallow bone structure, so therefore the redden can be viewed through the skinSHORT TERMIncreased flexibility:Your muscles are similar to chewing gum. When chewing gum is cold they are tight/stiff; however like chewing gum as they warm up (via friction and blood flow) they become stretchy and flexible.

LONG TERMDecrease of RHR:Your heart is a muscle, and whenever a muscle is worked out it grows larger and stronger. So therefore the more the heart works the stronger and more efficient it becomes. The heart can now pump more volume around the body with each pump so therefore doesnt need to beat as often

Decrease in breathing rate:The lungs work the same as the heart, so when the lungs become larger and more efficient they can pump more O2 around the bodyLONG TERMMuscles get larger and stronger:Muscles are made up of 1000s of little fibres the work together to create movement. Every time we exercise we slightly tear the individual fibres (hence the pain the next day) What happens next is that our muscles repair by filling in the tears/gaps, which make the muscles larger and stronger.

Feel fitter and use less energy:As our body has adapted to the exercise we become stronger and healthier/efficient. Our body now runs longer and harder before fatiguing so everyday tasks feel easier and recover faster from any exercise.

Energy SystemsTHE CREATINE PHOSPHATE SYSTEM (atp-cp)ADENOSINE PHOSPHATE(ADP) + CREATINE PHOSPHATE = ATP (ENERGY) This energy system is for immediate activityThis system uses the Creatine Phosphate stored in muscle cellsShort duration activity 0-10 seconds High intensity 100% This system is extremely efficient, it does not need oxygen. It also leaves no waste products Energy replenished after 2-3 minutes

THINK 100 metres, ThrowTHE anaerobic lactic acid SYSTEM This energy system is for short term activity e.g. 10 seconds to 2min.High intensity 100%Because this system does not require oxygen to burn carbohydrates, significant amounts of lactic acid can build upThe main source of energy for this system is carbohydrates in form of glucose braken down. This causes increase is acidity in muscles which brings on lactic acid (by product of system) build up in muscles and blood causing fatigue therefore decrease in performance At this point athlete can slow down allowing aerobic system to fuel the exercise or they can stop exercising completely This is called paying back the oxygen debtTHINK 400 metresAerobic Systems This energy system is for long term activity e.g. 2 mins plus at low intensityEnergy supplied to the body through oxygen, carbohydrates and fatsOxygen combines with lactic acid to produce water no effect on performanceShort duration activity 0-10 seconds

THINK 100 metres, Throw

Body Types

The EctomorphA person with the Ectomorph body type has a lean appearance, often with long, slender arms and legs.EctomorphBody type characterized bya low percentage of body fat, small bone size, and a small amount of muscle mass and size.

Ways to identify a EctomorphTall and SlenderDelicate built bodyLittle muscle and very little fatLong bones, arms and legs.Small shoulderedTakes longer to gain muscleThin

Advantage & disadvantagesAdvantages

Longer reach and larger range of movementAdvantage when running, contesting ball in netball, basketball, endurance sports due to less weightDisadvantages

Not so well suited to sports requiring physical contact

THE MESOMORPHA person with the mesomorph body type appears muscular and well-proportionedMESOMORPHBody type characterized by a low-to-medium percentage of body fat, medium-to-large bone size, and a large amount of muscle mass and size.

WAYS TO IDENTIFY A MESOMORPHAthleticHard bodyHourglass shaped (female)Rectangular shaped (male)Muscular bodyExcellent postureGain muscle easilyGains fat more easily than EctomorphsThick skinShort and Stocky


Suited for activities requiring strength and muscular endurance e.g. lifting, pushing etcSuited for contact sportsDISADVANTAGES

Not as suited to endurance sports as carrying extra weight

THE ENDOMORPHThe endomorph body type is characterized by a round face, short neck, and wide hips.ENDOMORPHBody type characterized by a high percentage of body fat, large bone size, and a small amount of muscle mass and size.

WAYS TO IDENTIFY A ENDOMORPHSoft bodyMore fatBigger than Ectomorphs but shorter bonesUnderdeveloped musclesRound physiqueWeight loss is difficult


Suit contact sports due to their extra weightMore suited to short duration activitiesDISADVANTAGES

Not suited for endurance events as of extra weight and fat


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