pig health= pig wealth

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PIG HEALTH= PIG WEALTH A presentation made at a pig farmers’ training organized by Pig Production and Marketing on 15.02.2014, Kampala JOSEPH M KUNGU National Livestock Resources Research Institute, P.O.Box 96 Tororo Uganda [email protected]

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  1. 1. PIG HEALTH= PIG WEALTH A presentation made at a pig farmers training organized by Pig Production and Marketing on 15.02.2014, Kampala JOSEPH M KUNGU National Livestock Resources Research Institute, P.O.Box 96 Tororo Uganda [email protected]
  2. 2. Introduction The pig; one of the most efficient feed converting livestock. the only litter bearing animal among meat producing livestock with the shortest generation interval and high feed conversion efficiency.
  3. 3. Then why the poor economic returns? The preliquisite for high economic returns is raising a healthy pig herd. Unfortunately, todays pig farmer does it as a by the way; keeps the pig under very unhygienic environment, a fertile ground for diseases . Economic losses due to diseases arise as mortality and reduced growth rate.
  4. 4. Common diseases of pigs in Uganda Recent studies (Dione et al,2014) indicate that; African Swine Fever (47.5). Worms (8.3); Large intestinal roundworms, nodular worms, whipworms, red stomachworms. Diarrhoea(4.2),due to indigestion, GIT parasites, worms, sign of systemic infection. Malnutrition (3.2), Ectoparasites;Mange (2.8), Lice (0.3), FMD (0.1).
  5. 5. How do I know my pig is sick? Not active Off food and water. Restless Recumbent all time Isolates itself from the herd
  6. 6. How can I keep a disease free pig herd? Clean disinfected surroundings. Clean water and feed troughs. Clean water and feed. Prevent dampness, exposure to extreme cold or heat. Avoid overcrowding. Isolate and treat of ailing animals.Regular deworming of pigs.Always consult your Vet on this.
  7. 7. Basic aid kit on farm Thermometer Drenching gun Pig snare Pack of disposable syringes and needles
  8. 8. Drug administration Oral administration for boluses, suspensions/syrups Injection, in the muscles, under the skin
  9. 9. African Swine Fever= African swine menace Todays most devastating pig disease causing upto 100% death during an outbreak and occurs countrywide. A highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs, warthogs,wild pigs. All age groups are equally susceptible.
  10. 10. How does a pig with ASF appear? With high virulence forms of the virus, ASF is characterized by high fever, loss of appetite, haemorrhages in the skin and internal organs, and death in 2-10 days on average. Caused by ASF is a DNA virus of the Asfarviridae family. ASF is a notifiable disease.In case of suspected outbreak report to authorities immediately.
  11. 11. How is it transmitted? The warthog can serve as a natural reservoir of the virus without sign of disease. Spread from this reservoir is via the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. The tick will ingest the virus when taking a blood meal and then pass it on to pigs. The virus occurs in all body fl uids and tissues of infected domestic pigs.
  12. 12. How ASF spreads Pigs usually become infected by; Direct contact with infected pigs or ingestion of garbage containing unprocessed infected pig meat or pig meat products. All processing procedures do not inactivate the ASF virus. Biting flies and ticks, contaminated premises, vehicles, equipment or clothing can also spread the virus to susceptible animals.
  13. 13. What are the signs of ASF? Severe cases of the disease are characterized by; high fever and death in 2-10 days. mortality rate as high as 100%. Other clinical signs include loss of appetite, depression, redness of the skin of the ears, abdomen, and legs, respiratory distress, vomiting, bleeding from the nose or rectum and sometimes diarrhoea. Abortion may be the first event seen in an outbreak.
  14. 14. Signs of ASF Moderately virulent forms of the virus produce less intense symptoms with mortality from 30- 70%. Chronic disease symptoms include; Loss of weight, intermittent fever, respiratory signs, chronic skin ulcers and arthritis.
  15. 15. ASF in pictures
  16. 16. How do I confirm that it is ASF? Combine clinical signs and Laboratory diagnositic tools i.e PCR, ELISA.
  17. 17. Signs in pictures
  18. 18. Signs in pictures
  19. 19. How to prevent/control ASF There is no published treatment or vaccine for ASF. Biosecurity measures are the key strategies for keeping ASF off your farm.
  20. 20. How to prevent/control ASF In endemic areas, it is difficult to eliminate the natural reservoir in warthogs; however, control of the soft tick vectors is important in preventing the disease. Meat from warthogs or infected animals not to be fed to susceptible pigs. All successful eradication programs have involved the rapid diagnosis, slaughter and disposal of all animals on infected premises, thorough cleaning and disinfection, disinsectisation, movement controls and surveillance.
  21. 21. Conclusion Every pig has a right be healthy (Proverbs 12.10). Farmers should aim at preventing diseases and parasites rather than treating after they occur. Prevention is better than cure" .