Planning for Effective Teaching. t Effective teaching MIGHT result in student learning. t Teaching and learning are not necessarily related. t Consistently.
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Planning for Effective Teaching Slide 2 t Effective teaching MIGHT result in student learning. t Teaching and learning are not necessarily related. t Consistently good learning rarely occurs without effective teaching. t The best, most effective, teachers are those who establish conditions most conducive to learning. t There are two basic types of conditions: Basic desirable Slide 3 Basic Conditions for Learning t Meaningful Application t Manageable Tasks t Examples of Expected Performance t Opportunities to Learn Slide 4 Learning tasks should be related to situations with which students are now familiar or to those which they can reasonably expect to encounter in the future. Information and skills should be shown as useful to students. Basic Condition: Meaningful Application Slide 5 Basic Condition: Manageable Tasks Learning tasks should be organized so that students have the prerequisite skills for what they are asked to do. Tasks should be arranged systematically and set at a difficulty level appropriate for the student. Slide 6 Basic Condition: Examples of Expected Performance Students should have access to examples which illustrate how tasks are to be performed. There should be examples of optimum, "error-free" performance (if possible) and examples of what is acceptable achievement in various situations. Slide 7 Basic Condition: Opportunities to Learn Students should be able to practice learning what they are expected to learn. This practice may take place in situations which are either identical, equivalent, or analogous to those situations in which students will need to apply or demonstrate what they have learned. Slide 8 Basic Condition: Knowledge of Results Students should have information on how well they are progressing. They need to be aware of the errors they make, how to go about correcting those errors, and the extent to which they are succeeding. Slide 9 Desirable Conditions for Learning t Opportunities for Choice t Opportunities for Success t Active Involvement t Supportive Environment Slide 10 Desirable Condition: Opportunities for Choice Enabling students to make choices about what and how they learn encourages their participation in the learning tasks. If students lack opportunities to make decisions about their own learning, they will seldom take responsibility for it. Slide 11 Desirable Condition: Opportunities for Success Students should have more than one opportunity to complete a learning task successfully. They should be able to make errors without always facing a penalty for failure. Slide 12 Desirable Condition: Active Involvement Learning tasks should engage students and hold their attention. Students need not be entertained, but they should be able to participate actively in the learning process. Slide 13 Desirable Condition: Supportive Environment Students may be threatened or discouraged by what they are expected to learn. The instructional context should be such that they can get assistance in working through the problems they encounter. Slide 14 t understand what is expected of them t are fully engaged in their work t get recognition for their work t learn quickly about their errors t learn from their errors t receive guidance for improvement work under a suitable classroom atmosphere class discipline openness to learning Teaching for learning is enhanced when students: Slide 15 Basic Conditions for Learning (taken from an article of the same name by D. Rhodes)