plant family holiday recipe brassicaceae, solanaceae, capparidaceae, rutaceae, oleaceae, apiaceae,...
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- Plant Family Holiday Recipe Brassicaceae, Solanaceae, Capparidaceae, Rutaceae, Oleaceae, Apiaceae, Piperaceae 1 head cauliflower 1 pint cherry tomatoes 1 tablespoon drained capers 4 teaspoons fresh lemon juice 2 teaspoons olive oil 1/4 cup fresh parsley leaves 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper Recipe Card 1 of 2
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- Plant Family Holiday Recipe Brassicaceae, Solanaceae, Capparidaceae, Rutaceae, Oleaceae, Apiaceae, Piperaceae Directions 1. In 5- to 6-quart saucepot, place 1 inch water and steamer basket; heat to boiling on high. Remove leaves and center of core from Brassicaceae. 2. Place Brassicaceae, core side down, in steamer basket. Cover saucepot with tight-fitting lid. Cook on medium 10 minutes or until Brassicaceae is fork-tender. 3. Meanwhile, in food processor with knife blade attached, pulse Solanaceae, Capparidaceae, Rutaceae juice, Oleaceae oil, chopped Apiaceae, 1/4 teaspoon salt, and 1/8 teaspoon ground Piperaceae until coarsely chopped, about 15 seconds. Spoon SCROAP relish over Brassicaceae to serve. Recipe Card 2 of 2
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- Things to Remember About Botanical Nomenclature
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- Common Names for Plants Common names are created by people doing the everyday living of life. They are words in the language of the layman and thus are easy to understand and use. Common names develop in the language or culture of a given people and may not be useful to people with a different language or culture. The multiplicity of common names can cause confusion, and common names are not precise enough to be used in serious scientific studies.
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- Scientific Names for Plants Scientific names evolved out of the study and reporting or plants in books starting during the period from the 13 th to 18 th centuries. Because the language of educated people was Latin, names of plants were written in Latin. Sometimes the descriptive names became very long and became known as polynomials since they both named and described the plant.
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- Polynomial Nomenclature Example Ranunculus calycibus retroflexis, pedunculis falcatis, caule erecto, foliis compositis Aka the buttercup with bent-back sepals, curved flower-stalks, erect stems and compound leaves. Cumbersome??? You bet!
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- So In 1753, Carolus Linnaeus, (aka Carl Linne ), a Swedish naturalist, published a very influential work called Species Plantarum (Species of Plants) in which he began using binonmial nomenclature instead. Binomials are two-word names written in Latin. (Genus and species) Linnaeus was the first to use binomial nomenclature consistently, and he is credited as being the father of modern scientific nomenclature, both botanical and zoological.
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- Thus Today the use of binomial nomenclature is universally accepted and changed little since the time it was first applied and perfected by Linnaeus. Remember then, a species name is a two- word name that consists of a generic name and a specific epithet. The specific epithet by itself is not a species name.
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- And to continue In binomial nomenclature, both the generic name and the specific epithet (genus and species) are italicized or underlined. The first letter of the generic name (genus) is capitalized, and it is recommended by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature that the specific epithet always be written in lower case. Thus, the new pine species (lets pretend here) named for President-elect Obama and published would be Pinus obamaii.
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- Why, oh why, obamaii??? The suffix, -ii, which is the possessive case for the Latinized version of a mans name [or, -iae for a womans name], is the equivalent of s in English. Thus, Pinus obamaii could be commonly called Obamas pine since we know who HE is. In the future then, perhaps, Pinus clintoniae or Pinus paliniae???
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- And, what about AUTHORITIES??? The individual or individuals who are responsible for giving plants their names are known as authorities. The names of these individuals are often abbreviated if too long. Examples: Lewisia rediviva Pursh Datura stranmonium L.
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- Lotus heermannii (Dur. & Hilg.) Greene What does this mean? The species was originally named by two naturalists by the names of E. M. Durand and T. C. Hilgard as Hosackia heermannii. Several years later, E. L. Green, another botanist, concluded that the genus Hosackia should be merged with the genus Lotus. Green transferred the specific epithet heermannii from Hosackia to Lotus. And, it appears that the genus Hosackia ceased to exist.
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- Lotus heermannii (Dur. & Hilg.) Greene So Durand and Hilgard (the parenthetical authorities) get credit for having published the epithet, heermannii. Greene, (the combining authority) gets credit for transferring the epithet to Lotus and publishing the combination Lotus heermannii.
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- And, remember: Where the species name is always italicized or underlined, the authorities are not. Example: Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. & Laws. (This means also that botanists Laws. & Laws. published the name proposed by Dougl.)
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- Botanical Latin Botanical Latin is an internationally used technical language developed over the past 250 years for the naming and descriptions of plants. It is accepted by botanists and horticulturists worldwide as the medium for naming new plants. We used Botanical Latin 4 th Edition by William T. Stearn as a standard of reference for our laboratory exercise on Botanical Latin.
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- More on Botanical Latin Sic enim potiusloquamur:melius est reprehendant nos grammatici quam non intelligant populi. Let us rather then declare: it is better that the grammarians censure us than that the public does not understand us. St. Augustine of Hippo (A.D. 354-430)
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- Botanical Nomenclature The principles and rules of botanical nomenclature have been developed and adapted by a series of international botanical congresses (IBC) and are listed in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (sometimes still referred to as the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature) or, the ICBN. The ICBN is a book with a new edition after each IBC and it contains the most current rules and other guidelines for botanical nomenclature.
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- IBC International Botanical Congress (IBC) is a large- scale meeting of botanists in all scientific fields, from all over the world. Authorized by the International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS), congresses are held every six years with the venue circulating around the world. The latest was the XVII IBC in Vienna, Austria, in 2005, a hundred years after the second congress, II IBC, was held in that same city. The next IBC will be held in Melbourne, Australia, 24-30 July 2011.
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- International Botanical Congresses IBC I 1900 Paris II 1905 Vienna III 1910 Brussels IV 1926 Ithaca, NY V 1930 Cambridge, UK VI 1935 Amsterdam VII 1950 Stockholm VIII 1954 Paris IX 1959 Montreal X 1964 Edinburgh, UK XI 1969 Seattle, WA XII 1975 Leningrad, USSR XIII 1981 Sydney XIV 1987 Berlin XV 1993 Tokyo XVI 1999 St. Louis, MO XVII 2005 Vienna XVIII 2011 Melbourne
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- IBC International Botanical Congress The IBC has the power to alter the ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.) Formally the power resides with the Plenary Session, but in practice this just approves the decisions of the Nomenclature Section. The Nomenclature Section meets before the actual Congress and deals with all proposals to modify the ICBN: this includes ratifying recommendations on conservation. To reduce the risk of a hasty decision the Nomenclature Section adopts a 60% majority as needed for any change.
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- ICBN International Code of Botanical Nomenclature The major goal of the ICBN is to provide one correct name for each taxonomic group (or taxon) within a stable system of names (a classification). The most current edition, published in 2006, of the ICBN would be from the IBC XVII session held in Vienna, Austria, in 2005. The next revision of the ICBN will be printed after the IBC XVIII session scheduled to be held in Melbourne, Australia in July of 2011.
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- IBC and ICBN Neither the IBC nor the ICBN have any executive or judicial power. The rules must be accepted or rejected on their own merits. There is no way, outside of peer pressure, to force a recalcitrant taxonomist into line. For the rest of us, we must use the current edition of the ICBN as the final word on problems arising from the use of scientific names.
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- ICBN The ICBN applies not only to plants, as they are now defined, but also to other organisms traditionally studied by botanists. This includes blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria); fungi, including chytrids, oomycetes, and slime molds; photosynthetic protists and taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups. There are special provisions in the ICBN for some of these groups, as there are for fossils.
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- ICBN For the naming of cultivated plants there is a separate code, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. This gives supplementary rules and recommendations.
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