plant identification roots, stems, leaves and flowers are the criteria

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Plant Identification Roots, Stems, Leaves and Flowers are the Criteria. Slide 2 Plant Identification Many things are taken into consideration when trying to identify a plant. Roots, stems, leaves and flowers will help in the identification process. Slide 3 Terminology In order to be able to identify a plant and put it in the right family, you need to know the terminology to use. Slide 4 Plant Identification You have two main categories of plants. Monocots grasses, grain crops, lilies, gladiolas, and palm trees Slide 5 Plant Identification Dicots - most of the other plants such as the shrubs, trees, and flowers. Slide 6 Plant Identification The following sections (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) will show you how to use these for plant identification purposes. Slide 7 Roots The type of root will normally help you identify the plant. It will place the plant into a monocot or dicot category. Slide 8 Types of Roots Tap Root Have a main central root and may have some lateral branching E.g. Carrots Slide 9 Types of Roots Penetrate the soil to various depths - some only a few feet, others like the mesquite to as deep as 114 ft. Slide 10 Types of Roots Fibrous Have many roots of equal size and a lot of lateral branching Fibrous roots are generally much more diffuse and closer to the surface Slide 11 Types of Roots This root system can effectively prevent any other plant from becoming established ex: grasses - idea of a healthy lawn is to compete with weeds Slide 12 Types of Roots Adventitious Buds - commonly develop on stems or roots - ex: stolons and rhizomes (Bermuda grass, cherry tree, Sumac and raspberry suckers) Slide 13 Types of Roots Prop Roots - augment regular roots for anchorage aid - ex: corn - roots come out above soil and help hold plant up Slide 14 Types of Roots Aerial Roots - extend down from the branches into the soil - ex: banyan trees Pneumatophores- stick up from the mud for the purpose of absorbing oxygen ex: cypress and mangrove Slide 15 Types of Roots Mycorrhizal fungi roots - form associations with soil fungi and act as root hairs increasing the absorption of water and minerals (symbiotic relationship - mutually beneficial) found on trees in temperate forests such as pines and also on ferns, lettuce, white clover, perennial rye and orchids Slide 16 Types of Roots Haustorial - parasitic roots which not only anchor but also penetrate into the hosts vascular system for water and nutrients ex: mistletoe Slide 17 Types of Roots Storage roots - starch and other molecules are stored for growth or flowering needs (ex: carrots, beets and turnips) Slide 18 Types of Roots Nitrogen fixing roots - members of the Leguminosae family (alfalfa, peas and clover) have a bacteria that infects their roots and forms nodules. The bacteria are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, to a form, that the plant can use. Slide 19 Why Different Types of Roots All plants are in competition with each other for food and nutrients By having different types of roots, the plants can reach different depths in the soil and still live side by side with other plants Slide 20 Roots from Seeds Monocot vs. Dicot Tap Root Seeds contain an undeveloped plant (embryo) Seed germination - embryonic root (radicle) grows by dividing and elongation of cells Slide 21 Roots from Seeds Forms one primary root Ex: dicots (two leaves emerge from embryo), beans Slide 22 Roots from Seeds cont. Fibrous root Embryos of grasses have a single radicle (root shoot) Also has other embryonic roots (seminal roots) forming just above the radicle Slide 23 Roots from Seeds cont. All of these branch to form the fibrous root Ex: monocots (one leaf emerges from embryo) Slide 24 Dicot Seed Slide 25 Monocot Seed Slide 26 Stems Flowering plants - divided into two groups, monocots and dicots - stems have major differences in arrangement, distribution of tissues and appearance. Slide 27 Stems For identification: type of stem (woody or herbaceous), monocot or dicot, has pubescence (hair) or not (glabrous), shape of stem (square round), or contains glands. Slide 28 Monocot stem Dicot stem Slide 29 Mature Structure of Woody vs Herbaceous Stems Herbaceous stems Lack secondary growth - because plants only live one year/growing season (annuals) Slide 30 Mature Structure of Woody vs Herbaceous Stems Stems remain soft and flexible. Buds lack protective scales (dont need to survive harsh conditions) Slide 31 Mature Structure of Woody vs Herbaceous Stems Woody stems Plants living and growing over multiple seasons have secondary growth (xylem, phloem) increasing diameter of the stems Slide 32 Specialized Stems Adventituous stems can be either rhizomes or stolons. Slide 33 Specialized Stems Rhizomes - underground horizontal stems (ex: perennial grasses, bamboo) - may also serve as a storage function (irises) will grow a plant and roots at a node. Slide 34 Specialized Stems Stolons - runners - usually above ground, horizontal stems (really elongated internodes) will grow a plant and roots at a node - ex: strawberries Slide 35 Specialized Stems Tubers - several internodes at the end of an underground rhizome (ex: potatoes) - eyes are axillary buds where the tuber will grow a plant Slide 36 Slide 37 Specialized Stems Bulbs - large bud with small stem at lower end - storage in the form of numerous, fleshy leaves - ex: onion, lily, tulip Corms - look like bulbs, but are mostly stem tissue with a few, papery leaves on the outside - ex: gladiolus, crocus Slide 38 Slide 39 Slide 40 Leaves Leaves are used as part of the identification process along with the roots and stems. Look of the leaf (margins, venation, and shape), arrangement and whether it is monocot or dicot. Slide 41 Leaves Leaves may contain pubescence, glands or thorn like projections. All of these points are considered when using a leaf for identification. Slide 42 Parts of a Dicot Leaf Leaf blade expanded, usually flat portion of a leaf contains chloroplasts Petiole connects the blade of a leaf to a stem or branch holds leaf up for better air flow and to catch the light Slide 43 Parts of a Dicot Leaf Veins threads of vascular tissue (xylem & phloem) Node place on a stem where leaves or branches normally originate Stem used for support of leaf Slide 44 Leaf Blade Petiole Veins Where leaf would be attached to the branch or stem at the node. Dicot Leaf Slide 45 Parts of a Monocot Leaf Node where leaf arises or originates from Blade leaf blade flat upper portion of leaf Stem used for support of leaf, inflorescence, and seed heads Slide 46 Parts of a Monocot Leaf Sheath part of leaf that holds leaf to stem encases stem Ligule membrane-like tissue extending up from the sheath (on inside) keeps dirt and moisture out clear membrane on leaf where attaches to stem Slide 47 Sheath Blade Node Collar Auricle Ligule Stem Monocot Leaf Slide 48 Parts of a Monocot Leaf Auricle small appendages that extend out and sometimes around the stem found at the junction of the blade and sheath can be clasping or non clasping appendages Slide 49 Parts of a Monocot Leaf Collar area between the leaf blade and sheath auricles and ligules are on the inside of this area Slide 50 Picture showing parts of a grass plant. Slide 51 Differences Between Monocot and Dicot Leaves Monocots blade like leaf blade wrap around the stem no petiole have main vascular bundles running parallel along length of leaf Dicots Have both a leaf blade and a petiole single midrib (Vascular bundles) with branches Slide 52 Two Types of Leaves Simple leaves composed of a single leaf and a petiole Slide 53 Simple Leaf Blade Petiole Slide 54 Two Types of Leaves Compound leaves are composed of a blade that includes several leaflets and a petiole also contain a rachis (connects leaflets to the petiole) two types: Slide 55 Two Types of Leaves Palmately Compound (chestnut) the lobes or divisions come together and are attached at one place at the base Slide 56 Palmately Compound Leaf Leaf Blade Petiole Slide 57 Two Types of Leaves Pinnately Compound compound leaf with the leaflets on two opposite sides, but off of one node ex: ferns, ash, hickory Slide 58 Pinnately Compound Leaf Leaf Blade Leaflets Petiole Slide 59 Leaf Arrangement Monocots have only one type of arrangement leaf comes off of a node ex: grasses and grain crops Slide 60 Leaf Arrangement Dicots flowering plants Alternate one leaf per node Opposite two leaves per node Whorled three or more leaves per node Slide 61 Leaf Arrangements Whorl look like helicopter blades ex: Bedstraw Alternate one on each side of the stem, are not opposite of each other but every other one Opposite one on each side of the stem and opposite of each other Slide 62 Arrangement of Veins Four types of vein arrangements: Parallel veins veins are small and run more or less parallel most are long and narrow ex: Buckhorn Plantain, grasses and Iris mostly monocots Slide 63 Arrangement of Veins Netted veins are large and small the small ones connecting to each other to form a net mostly dicots Slide 64 Arrangement of Veins Pinnately veined with one larger midvein and smaller veins coming off along its length mostly dicots Slide 65 Arrangement of Veins Palmately veined- with two or more large veins arising at or near the base of the leaf blade (palm) leaves are usually broad or fat mostly dicots Slide 66 Parallel Veins Netted Veins Pinnately Veined Palmately Veined Slide 67 Monocot Leaf -Vein Arrangement Dicot Leaf Vein Arrangement Vein Midvein Smaller lateral vein Slide 68 Leaf Modifications Tendrils typically at the end of a compound leaf enables plant to climb ex: pea Slide 69 Modifications Stipules occur at node where normal or true leaves arise from stem are small leaf like structures at the base of petioles may be leaf -like or spines (ex: locust) Slide 70 Modifications Spines modified

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