plato’s moral theory

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Plato’s Moral Theory. Examine ( elenchos ) your values, society’s values, religious values, etc. Accept the limits of human knowledge; use reason to discover the definition ( logos ) of each virtue and virtue itself; live well ( eudaimonia ). You are rich, respected, and - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Examine (elenchos) your values, societys values, religious values, etc.Accept the limits of human knowledge; use reason to discover the definition (logos) of each virtue and virtue itself; live well (eudaimonia).

    You are rich, respected, and feared, but hows your soul?

  • A virtue theory: virtues are character traits which promote the interests of the agent and her community. No Moderation makes Gia unhealthy and her closest community unhappy.A self-interest theory: Wrongdoing harms the wrongdoer. Doing the right thing always promotes ones interests.

    A rationalist theory: virtue is acquired by rational reflection. All who understand the nature of justice, goodness, etc., will behave virtuously and live well. Careful thinking is the key to moral conduct.

  • Terms like justice, beauty, unity, etc., refer to entities existing in a transcendent realm. Knowledge occurs only when the human mind/soul makes non-perceptual contact with these ideal, eternal objects. A Form is immutable, timeless, one over many, intellectually apprehensible, and capable of precise definition via dialectical inquiry.

  • I. One over many: Universal properties shared by many particulars; many intelligent students; there is some single property that each has, intelligence.

    II. Standards of measurement and appraisal: More or less equal, implies knowledge of Equality. More or less honest = closer to or further from perfect honesty.

  • III. Definitions: Is compassion good? Requires definitions of compassion and good.IV. Immutable things: Jill may be pale in winter and tan in summer, but pale can never become tan.

    V. Timeless truths: truths about particulars are tensed, truths about universals and definitions are timeless.VI. Intellectual knowledge: apprehension of general concepts is intellectual, not perceptual. Certainty.

  • Objects States of mindIntelligible The Good Intelligence or Knowledge realm Forms Mathematical Thinking objects____________________________________________realm of visible things belief/opinionappearance images imagining