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CHAPTER 1COMPANY PROFILE Wonder System is a dedicated team of Automation -Design (Hardware, Software & Systems) engineers, capable of, and committed to understand customer requirements, translate them to feasible design specification, develop performing solutions, validate, and help deploy to the end uses. Wonder system excellence in automation design services makes it a technology innovator and trusted partner for system engineering services. It provides intensive practical training. It believes in providing 50% theory and 50%practical.Wonder system is known for providing quality products which is effective in upgrading the knowledge and skills set of the student. Wonder system also provides exposure to the industrial environment to students and introduce to latest technology trends.Wonder Systems India, being system integrator for SSD Drives division of Parker Hannifin Corporation (formerly Eurotherm Drives), UK and Italy offers complete Engineering & cost effective solutions, covering Design Concepts, Assembly, Supply, Commissioning and Field services for various Industrial applications For the customers, it means: Shortened Time-To Market Cost Efficiency Certainty of Outcome Highest Quality 1.1 OBJECTIVE OF AUTOMATION TRAINING To train a new generation of skilled workers for service maintenance, programming operation of new range of machines and equipments being introduced for industrial and commercial use. To upgrade the skills of existing industrial workers through short term specialized courses in newly emerging Hi-Tech Area of industry. To provide diagnostic and development curriculum design and high live dialectic support for training system as well as industrial consultancy facilities.

1.2 PARTNERS BHARAT ISPAT UDYOG GIAN STEEL ROLLING MILLS GOLDEN STRIPS LTD ALLIED RECYCLING LTD KASHMIR STEELS LTD HIM ALLOYS LTD C.P. ROLLING MILLS PVT. LTD VIJAY STEEL LTD. 1.3 INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS STEEL MASTERS LTD, TANZANA GALAXY PROMOTERS, NIGERIA RAZAQUE STEEL, PAKISTAN ACCURATE STEEL MILLS,KENYA 1.4 APPLICATIONSWonder Systems India, being System Integrators for PARKER SSD Drives (formerly Eurotherm Drives), UK and SAEL, Italy offer complete Engineering & cost effective solutions, covering Design Concepts, Assembly, Supply, Commissioning and Field services for various Industrial applications. Hot Strip Mills TMT Mills Bar Mills Tube Mills Cold Rolling Mills PVC Extrusion mills Paper Mill Drawing mills Cable industries

CHAPTER 2INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION2.1 Definition Of AutomationIt is define as the replacement of muscular and mental efforts of human being by the use of hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical and electronics component or it is the use of machines, control system and information technologies to optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the world economy and in daily experience.

The dictionary defines automation as the technique of making an apparatus ,a process, or a system operate automatically.We define automation as the creation and application of technology to monitor and control the production and delivery of products and services.Using our definition, the automation profession includes everyone involved in the creation and application of technology to monitor and control the production and delivery of products and services; and the automation professional is any individual involved in the creation and application of technology to monitor and control the production and delivery of products and services. Automation provides benefits to virtually all of industry. Here are some examples: Manufacturing , including food and pharmaceutical, chemical and petroleum, pulp and paper Transportation , including automotive, aerospace, and rail Utilities , including water and wastewater, oil and gas, electric power, and telecommunications Defence Facility operations , including security, environmental control, energy management, safety, and other building automation and many othersAutomation crosses all functions within industry from installation, integration, and maintenance to design, procurement, and management. Automation even reaches into the marketing and sales functions of these industries.Automation involves a very broad range of technologies including robotics and expert systems,telemetry and communications, electro-optics, Cyber security, process measurement and control, sensors, wireless applications, systems integration, test measurement, and many, many more.2.2 Current Emphasis In Automation Currently, for manufacturing companies, the purpose of automation has shifted from increasing productivity and reducing costs, to broader issues, such as increasing quality and flexibility in the manufacturing process.

2.3 Need For Automation Economic advantage through increased Productivity. Reduced labour costs. Savings in supervision Reduction in operating cost. Improved accuracies with consistency of quality parameters. Safety concerns Automation of component handling for hazardous process. Elimination of human errors. Suitable for mass production with better material handling. Flexible with zero set-up change time.

2.4 Criteria For Automation Inaccessible areas of operation. Component handling difficult because of size. Process critical to quality of end product & calls for no manual intervention. Influence of process time i.e. Process time smaller than manual load / unload time. Enhancement of productivity and reduction in operator fatigue. Elimination of wrong loading Requirement of Fool proofing. Safety concerns, hazardous process.

2.5 Safety Issues Of Industrial Automation:-One safety issue with automation is that while it is often viewed as a way to minimize human error in a system, increasing the degree and levels of automation also increases the consequences of error. For example, The Three Mile Island nuclear event was largely due to over-reliance on "automated safety" systems. Unfortunately, in the event, the designers had never anticipated the actual failure mode which occurred, so both the "automated safety systems and their human overseers were inundated with vast amounts of largely irrelevant information. With automation we have machines designed by (fallible) people with high levels of expertise, which operate at speeds well beyond human ability to react, being operated by people with relatively more limited education (or other failings, as in the Bhopal disaster or Chernobyl disaster). Ultimately, with increasing levels of automation over ever larger domains of activities, when something goes wrong the consequences rapidly approach the catastrophic. This is true for all complex systems however, and one of the major goals of safety engineering for nuclear reactors, for example, is to make safety mechanisms as simple and as foolproof as possible (see safety engineering and passive safety).2.6 Automation Tools Different types of automation tools exist. ANN - Artificial neural network DCS - Distributed Control System HMI - Human Machine Interface LIMS - Laboratory Information Management System MES - Manufacturing Execution System PAC - Programmable automation controller PLC - Programmable Logic Controller SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 2.7 Advantages Of Automation Increased productivity Improved quality Improved robustness of product Economy improvement Time saving Reduce human efforts Low power consumption More accuracy

2.8 Limitation Of Automation Current technology is unable to automate all the desired tasks. As a process becomes increasingly automated, there is less and less labor to be saved or quality improvement to be gained. This is an example of both diminishing returns and the logistic function. Similar to the above, as more and more processes become automated, there are fewer remaining non-automated processes. This is an example of exhaustion of opportunities. Unemployment rate increases due to machines replacing humans and putting those humans out of their jobs. Technical Limitation: Current technology is unable to automate all the desired tasks Security Threats/Vulnerability: An automated system may have limited level of intelligence; hence it is most likely susceptible to commit error. Unpredictable development costs: The research and development cost of automating a process may exceed the cost saved by the automation itself. High initial cost: The automation of a new product or plant requires a huge initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product, although the cost of automation is spread in many product batches of things.

CHAPTER 3PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER

3.1 IntroductionAutomation of many different processes, such as controlling machines, basic relay control, motion control, process control is done through the use of small computers called a programmable logic controller (PLC). This is actually a control device that consists of a programmable microprocessor, and is programmed using a specialized computer language. 3.2 What is PLCA Programmable Logic Controller, PLC, or Programmable Controller is anelectronic device used for Automation of industrial processes, such as control of machinery onfactory assemblylines. Aprogrammable controller is a digitally operating electronic apparatuswhich uses aprogrammable memory for the internal storage of instructions for implementingspecific functions,such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic, to control variousmachines or processes throughdigital or analoginput/output devices. Unlike general purposecomputers, the PLCis designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extendedtemperature ranges, immunityto electrical noise, an

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