plumbers installation handbook.pdf
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Plumbers Installation Handbook PPFA
1 2003 PPFA. All rights reserved.
INTRODUCTIONThis installation Handbook is preparedthrough the voluntary efforts of the membersof the Plastic Pipe and Fittings Association.The Plastic Pipe and Fittings Association(PPFA) is the trade association ofmanufacturers of plastic pipe and fittings,producers of raw materials used in them, andsuppliers of related products and services tothe plastic pipe and fittings industry. PPFAprovides a full range of association servicesfor its members and the industry.The Handbook is organized in sections basedon the application or end use for each type ofplastic piping, namely, Drain, Waste and Vent(DWV); Water Service Piping; Hot and ColdWater Distribution; and Sewer and Drains.
PURPOSE and SCOPEThe purpose of the Handbook is to provideplumbers and other interested persons with asingle publication that describes plastic pipeproducts and many of the generally acceptedinstallation practices for plastic pipe andfittings currently being utilized in the UnitedStates. It does not contain all of theinformation needed for comprehensiveplumbing design and practices using plasticpiping. While PPFA has attempted to collectand describe the most widely used, generallyaccepted installation techniques, there areundoubtedly some that were not included inthis Handbook. Subsequent editions mayadd, drop, amend, or revise practicescontained herein.It should be clearly understood that neitherPPFA nor its members recommend anysingle (or even all) installation practicedescribed in this Handbook for any specificapplication or system. Both practicalconsiderations and logic preclude suchrecommendations because of the wide
variety of products and the considerablevariation in circumstances surrounding theinstallation of these products. Accordingly,any plumber or other installer must refer firstto the manufacturers installation instructionsand recommendations for the product orproducts being used. Any inconsistency ordiscrepancy between thoserecommendations and instructions and thematerial in this Handbook must be resolvedin favor of the manufacturers installationrecommendations or instructions.
We urge you to read and study allinformation available to you on plastic piping.Plastic piping is used extensively in theplumbing field for DWV, water service, hotand cold-water distribution systems, sewers,and drains. Learn to recognize and comparethe various types of plastic pipe and tubing.The general term plastic pipe is no moredefinitive than saying metal pipe. Just asyou recognize cast iron, galvanized steel,copper, stainless steel, and brass, you willwant to become familiar with the differentkinds of plastic pipe and the advantageseach offers.
Tools designed exclusively for use withplastic piping are available. We suggest thatyou secure brochures from your supplierscovering these tools. They contribute greatlyto the ease and precision of the installation.Neither PPFA nor its members make anywarranties or representations whatsoever,either stated or implied, relative to the fitnessof any product, materials, or proceduresreferred to in this Handbook for any particularpurpose or use. Many of the products in thisHandbook are interrelated, and we stronglysuggest you read it in its entirety before youbegin working with plastic pipe and fittings.
Plumbers Installation Handbook
2 2003 PPFA. All rights reserved.
Plumbing codes & product standardsIt is well known that plumbing codes weredeveloped to protect the health and welfareof the communities by preventingcontamination of the water supply andproviding for the proper disposal ofwastewater. These plumbing codes set forthmany requirements for acceptable productsand usually reference those productstandards applicable to them.Check your plumbing code to determinewhich materials and products may be usedfor each application, what product standardsapply, and whether there are any specialprovisions regarding use of the materials.The following chart shows the generalcategories of piping applications of plasticpiping materials covered by nationalconsensus standards. Various manufacturersmay exempt certain specific applicationsfrom these general applications categories.Thus, reference must be made to amanufacturers application instructionsbefore installing.
Plastic Pipe in Fire Resistive ConstructionPlastic piping has been used extensively inresidential, commercial, and industrial fire-rated construction throughout the US andCanada for decades. The plumbing codesreinforce the fire and building code provisionsby requiring that all piping penetrations bemade in such a manner as to maintain theintegrity of the fire rating of building walls,floors, and ceilings.For additional information,contact PPFA for a copy of the Plastic Pipe in
ConclusionsInformation on the proper methods ofinstallation for all types of plastic piping maynot be included in all apprentice-trainingprograms. Just as metals copper, iron andaluminum differ, so do the plastics ABS,PVC, CPVC, PE, PP, PEX, PE-AL-PE, andPEX-AL-PEX. Just as metal alloys brass,bronze, stainless steel, and cast iron differ,so also can the plastics differ. Plastic productsshould be installed with the same care andprecision workmanship that has been thestandard of the plumbers profession from thebeginning. Members of the Plastic Pipe andFittings Association make installation andtechnical information on specific productsavailable on their web site.Remember, plumbing is just one applicationfor plastic pipe. It is also used for chilledwater-cooling systems, electrical conduit,environmental/groundwater sampling, buriedLP gas piping, high and low head irrigationsystems, water and sewer mains, water wellcasing, telephone duct, liners in high-pressuremetal piping, hydronic heating, reliningexisting sewers, radiant heating, earth-coupled heat pumps, low-temperatureheating/cooling systems, and directionaldrilling installations.The PPFA Plumbers Installation Handbookwas developed by the PPFA TechnicalCommittee using the ballot process. Thecommittee meets in cinjnction with ASTMF 17 sessions and invites comments from allactive ASTM F17 members. Comments andsuggestions concerning this informationshould be directed to the Technical Committeethrough PPFA offices.
Fire Resistive Construction manual.
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Plumbers Installation Handbook PPFA
3 2003 PPFA. All rights reserved.
DWV piping generalA word of caution is essential: You mustcheck your local plumbing code to be surethat the product you have chosen is approvedby your code. Do not assume that every pipingproduct sold by a supplier has been locallyapproved.Whether you have chosen ABS-DWV, ABS-DWV cellular core, PVC-DWV or PVC-DWVcellular core piping, you have chosen a widelyused product. These products, while made ofdifferent plastic materials, are similar in bothinstallation procedures and service abilities.Mixing ABS and PVC pipe and fittings withinthe same system is not recommended.However, joining ABS and PVC is possiblewhen connecting building sewers to buildingdrains. Consult your local code official and theproduct manufacturers for specificinstructions.
DWV piping - storage and handlingStorage on the job site should always be onlevel support in a shaded area. If shade is notavailable, a suitable substitute, such asbuilding felt or a tarp, should be used. Fittingsshould be stored in their shipping cartons orrough sorted into cardboard boxes. This willnot only protect them from exposure to thesun but will help keep them clean. Pipe andfittings should be kept free of dust, dirt, and oilat all times.
DWV piping markingAll PVC and ABS DWV pipe and fittings aremarked with their respective ASTM standardsfor easy identification. In addition to thestandards number, other markings will includethe manufacturers name and/or trademark,pipe size, the material (ABS or PVC), DWV,and the mark of a certification organizationwhere required by codes.Fittings markings vary slightly because of thelimitation of space. They will normally bemarked with the manufacturers name and/ortrademark, pipe size, the material (ABS orPVC), and the DWV symbol and certificationmarks.
The ABS-DWV and PVC-DWV markingsapply only to Schedule 40 DWV and the 3.25-inch OD (Schedule 30) PVC-DWV piping.(Schedule 40 denotes an outside diameterand wall thickness equal, size for size, to theoutside diameter and wall thickness of
DWV piping - cellular core markingASTM F 628, Schedule 40 ABS-DWV pipewith a cellular core has the additional markingCOEX ABS CELLULAR CORE DWV. ASTMF 891, PVC pipe with a cellular core has theadditional marking IPS SCHEDULE 40SERIES COEX CELLULAR CORE PVC-DWV.
DWV piping- coextruded compositemarkingASTM F 1488 pipe is marked with the series(ex. IPS SCHEDULE 40 SERIES) and thedesignation of the materials, starting with theoutermost material (ex. ABS/CELLULARPVC/ABS). ASTM F 1499 pipe is marked IPSSCH 40 along with the designation of thematerials, starting with the outermost material(ex. ABS/PVC). Different combinations ofABS, PVC, and cellular ABS or PVC arepermitted by both standards in two or threelayers. Cellular core material may only beused in the middle layer of three-layer pipe.
DWV piping - dual marked PVC markingSchedule 40 PVC DWV pipe is frequentlydual marked for both DWV and potablewater pressure pipe (ASTM D 1785 andASTM D 2665). A dual marked PVC DWVand potable wate