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  • Policy, Legislation and Institutional Arrangements:

    An ADPC Commentary on Innovation and Good Practice in

    DRR Governance in Asia

    Presentation by A.J Rego (ADPC) for the Seventh IIASA -DPRI

    Forum on Integrated Disaster Risk Management

    Asian Conference for Disaster Reduction

  • The Importance of Good Practice in DM Legislation

    Background on Disasters in the Region -

    Asia - most disaster prone continent in the

    world - over 50% of total world disasters

    Disasters exacerbated by Asias rising

    population, increased development + urban


    Asia is home to nearly two thirds of the

    worlds population

  • The 2 deadliest disasters of 2006 were both in Asia

    -Indonesian EQ (May) killing 5,778

    -Typhoon Durian (Philippines, Dec.) killing 1,399

    Typically DM activities in Asia have been focused

    around relief + response efforts on mitigation,

    preparedness and DRR measures

  • Catastrophes As Turning Points

    1880s - run up to IDNDR

    1990/91 - Mt. Pinatubo eruption & Bagiou EQ saw start of NDCC in


    1991 - Bangladesh cyclone prompted separate DM Bureau (93)

    1994 - Yokohama conference stimulated national & sub regional action

    plans for DM

    1995 - Kobe EQ -changes in building control

    1996 - Typhoon Linda led to better implementation of 1993 Water

    Disaster Management Plan

  • 1997 - El Nino induced fires showed regional scale of disaster &


    1998 - China adopted Natural Disaster Reduction Plan

    1998 - IDNDR catalysed new commitment and action

    2000 - floods, EQs and cyclones in India promoted formation of high

    powered committee on DM policy

    2000 - Mekong floods in Cambodia & Vietnam led to regional river

    basin approach to FMM led by MRC

    2001 -Gujarat EQ accelerated HPC report

    Catastrophes As Turning Points

  • UNDP Global Review on DRM ILS (2004)

    A Global Review:UNDP Support to Institutional and Legislative Systems (ILS) for Disaster Risk Management

  • Institutional and Legislative Systems (ILS) for Disaster Risk Management are important components of good governance and should be guided by the same basic principles, (i.e. accountability, participation, rule of law, effectiveness and sustainability).

    For the purpose of this review, ILS have been broken down into five important dimensions:

    legal and regulatory frameworks

    policy and planning

    organizational aspects

    resources and capacities

    partnerships (international and national levels)

    ILS for DRM

  • HFA (2005-15) - Priority on Governance

    Priority 1: Ensures that disaster risk reduction is a national and local priority with strong institutional basis for implementation.

    Strong national and local commitment is required to save lives and livelihoods threatened by natural disasters.

    Countries to develop or modify policies, laws and organisational arrangements, as well as plans, programs and projects, to integrate DRR and allocation of sufficient resources to support and maintain them.

  • HFA Priority no. 1 calls for

    Institutionalization of DRR and establishment of mechanisms to mainstream it

    Creation of effective multi-sector national platforms to provide policy guidance and to coordinate activities

    Community participation so that local needs are met

  • UNISDR Guiding Principles for National Platforms

    DRR should be regarded as a national and cross-cutting issue within the field of sustainable development.

    National platforms should utilize a participatory processthat includes multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral perspectives and actions that are linked to existing systems.

    National platforms should influence positive changes by making concerted and coordinated efforts, particularly in policy, planning and decision-making processes.

    National platforms should encourage the national adaptation and ownership of the HFA.

  • ADPC interest in Policy and Legislation for DRR

    1988-91: Disaster Managers Handbook for ADB

    1990-94: UN Inter Agency DM Training Program was

    implemented in 56 countries -ADPC involved with 7

    workshops in Asia Identified need for information

    sharing on institutional design of national DM offices

    and National DM Plans

  • ADPC interest in Policy and Legislation for DRR

    1999 - AUDMP Regional Sharing Workshop

    Identified need for enhanced institutional arrangements for DM in

    Asia, at both national and city level

    Key concern at ADPC Regional Consultative Committee on DM


    ADPC Regional Workshop and Study on Policy, Legal and

    Institutional Arrangements for DM in Asia (Bangkok, 2002) - to share

    information on good practices and successful strategies b/w countries

    UNDP DM Institutional Strengthening Projects in Sri Lanka and

    Cambodia implemented by ADPC

  • RCC 2 Priorities for Capacity Building for National Systems

    Integrating disaster management into

    national planning

    Strengthening national disaster

    management committees/agencies

    Developing disaster management plans

    Exchanging experience on legal and

    institutional arrangements

    Creating awareness and political


    (As prioritized during RCC 1 and RCC 2, for implementation by RCC Member countries and


  • RCC 2 Priorities for Capacity Building for National Systems

    Building national disaster management

    information systems

    Improving disaster management

    training and capacity building

    Promoting public awareness and media

    coverage of disaster risk reduction

    Enhancing scientific and technical

    cooperation in disaster management

    (As prioritized during RCC 1 and RCC 2, for implementation by RCC Member

    countries and ADPC)

  • Study on National Platforms for Disaster Reduction 2006analyses the current institutional arrangements and potentials of national platforms for disaster reduction in three South (East) Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka.


  • Analysis

    National agencies (MoFDM in Bangladesh, NCDM in Cambodia, MDMHR and DMC in Sri Lanka) should serve as the cornerstone of a national platform

    Advancing risk reduction through programimplementation in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka

    Specific Actions in Cambodia

    Integration of DRR issues into developmentplanning process in each country

    National Reporting on HFA Implementation

    Benefits from Regional Linkages

  • Importance of Integrating DRR Measures into

    Government PolicyBest use of scarce response resources - ensure responsible

    use of resources + implement DRR + mitigation activities

    Disaster resilience - ensure limited disruption to

    community post disaster by maintaining essential services

    Sustainability of publicly funded assets + infrastructure -

    hazard adjustments to protect government investments

    Risk management coordinator - effective DM depends on

    this for resource + communication coordination

  • National level planning and execution - realisation that

    disasters affect all levels of society

    Regulatory requirements and enforcement -change

    societal values through government legislature

    Economic benefits of mitigation - risk reduction +

    disaster prevention are cheaper then recovery costs

    Developing national strategies -government can plan

    counter measures + has authority to commit resources

  • Importance of Legislation

    Defines actions to be taken during emergencies

    Provides formal support to preparedness measures

    and organisational arrangements

    Delegation of responsibilities/resources

    Creates a uniform national effect

  • National DM Policy

    Establish national agency/ organisation to deal with national

    risks/hazards - disaster counter measure

    a) Coordinate DM activities eg. define roles/responsibilities

    and allocate resources

    b) Provide framework for action

    c) Implement pre-disaster mitigation + preparedness measures

    d) Coordinate relief activities + assessments in disaster


  • National DM policy clearly defines methods and means

    of mitigating and dealing with disaster threats whether

    by action enforcing policies, attention focusing or

    recovery policies

    Institutions and arrangements regarding DM need to be

    adaptable to changing times/circumstances/

    developments/competencies/DRR knowledge and need

    to recognise the potential of every individual/

    organisation to contribute to DRR strategies

    - allocate necessary responsibility/resources

  • Good DRR Governance Practices in Asia

    SNAP Thailand

    Cambodia's CBDRR strategy

    Sri Lanka road map

    Indonesia DRR NAP

    Laos National Action Plan

    Vietnam DRR Strategy

    Bangladesh CDMP

    India DRR framework

    Pakistan DRR framework

  • Bangladesh

    Comprehensive Disaster Management Plan (CDMP) is articulated through the Ministrys Corporate Plan: A Framework of Action 2005-2009, which highlights a road map for the development of internal strategic plans for its three operational directorates. The plans are based on collaborative partnerships, particularly with NGOs, and seek ensure the effective and sustainable delivery of services in each sector.

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