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QUICK TIMELINE:123 First tribunate of Gaius Gracchus 122 Second tribunate of Gaius Gracchus 121 Civil disorder in Rome. Gaius Gracchus killed. Many followers of the Gracchi are executed. Defeat of the Arverni and Allobroges. Gallia Narbonensis becomes a Roman province. 119 Marius tribune. Abolition of the Gracchan land commission. 116 Senatorial commission despatched to Numidia to mediate on succession. 113-101 Cimbri and Teutones invade Roman territories 113 Cn. Carbo defeated at Noreia by the Cimbri 112-106 Jughurtine War 112 Jugurtha sacks Cirta. War declared on Jugutha. 110 War in Africa. 109 Metellus gains some successes against Jughurta 107 Marius elected consul, succeeds Metellus for command in Africa and captures Capsa. Cassius defeated by Tigurini in Gaul. 106 Birth of Cicero and Pompey. Marius advances into western Numidia. Bocchus of Mauretania surrenders Jugurtha to Sulla. 105 Cimbri and Teutones destroy Roman armies at Arausio. 104-100 Second Sicilian slave war. 104 Marius consul second time, reorganizes Roman army. 103 Marius consul third time. Land allotments for Marius' veterans. Marius trains army in Gaul. 102 Marius consul fourth time, defeats Teutones near Aquae Sextiae (Aix-enProvence). M. Antonius sent to Cilicia to deal with pirates. 101 Marius consul fifth time. Marius and Catullus defeat Cimbri at Vercellae (Vercelli). 100 Marius consul sixth time. Rioting in Rome. Marius restores order. Birth of Julius Caesar. 98 Marius leaves Rome for Asia. Revolt in Lusitania 96 Ptolemy Aion bequeaths Cyrene to Rome by testament 95 Mithridates ordered out of Paphlagonia and Cappadocia. 91-89 Social War between Rome and its Italian allies 90 Roman setbacks in Social War. Lex Julia: Latins, Etruscans, and Umbrians remaining loyal to Rome are given Roman citizenship. 89-85 Fisrt Mithridatic War. - War with Mithridates VI of Pontus over his territorial ambitions. 89 Victories of Strabo and Sulla. Lex Plautia Papiria: Roman citizenship conceded to all allies south of the Po. 88 Proposal to transfer command in Asia from Sulla to Marius by tribune Sulpicius Rufus. Sulla seizes Rome. Mithridates overruns Asia Minor. 87 Cinna and Marius in control of Rome, massacre Sulla's supporters. Sulla lands in Greece and besieges Athens. 87-84 Consulships of Cinna 86 Marius consul seventh time, dies. Sulla conquers Athens, defeat Mithridates

armies at Chaeronea and Orchomenus. 85 Treaty of Dardanus with Mithridates. 84 Cinna killed. Carbo sole consul. 83-82 Second Mithridatic War 83 Sulla lands in Italy. Murena begins Second Mithridatic War 82 Civil War in Italy. Sulla victorious. Proscribtions in Rome. Sertorius leaves for Spain. Pompey crushes Sulla's opponents in Sicily. 81 Sulla dictator. Constitutional reforms. Pompey defeats Marians in Africa. Sertorius driven out of Spain. 80 Sertorius lands in Spain again. 79 Sulla resigns dictatorship. Sertorius defeats Metellus Pius 78 Death of Sulla. P.Servilis starts three year campaign against pirates

RomePRE REPUBLIC ROME: Around 750 BC small settlements developed on the seven hills that later made up Rome. Around 600 BC Etruscans who controlled northern Italy, concurred Rome and the surrounding Latin tribal areas. In 509 BC the roman and Latin tribes revolted and won there independence from the Etruscans. More significantly than overthrowing the E the new population of the seven hills village rejected the traditional system of rule, the monarchy. For the next 600 years these people would do everything in their power to avoid and resist the concept of an autocratic rule. They wanted no king of Rome. Once the E were overthrown the people of Rome instituted a system of government that had an elected leadership. They became a republic. Once Rome was free of the E they spent the next 150 years bringing the rest of Italy under their control. By 330 BC they controlled northern Italy and by 272 BC they controlled the whole of Italy. But the Italians were not Romans, they were provinces of Rome or conquests of Rome or allies of Rome and they had varying responsibilities to Rome but they did not have the rights of Romans. The creation of a powerful independent roman republic required the organisation of a new social structure and as with any dynamic society, this structure was liable to change. When the republic is first structured around 450 BC a very disseminative class system develops. Over time this system changes this course involves the study of the system and its changes. THE PATRICIAN CLASS: The roman society was divided into 2 groups Patricians and Plebeians. The Patrician class were those who could trace their lineage back to the time of the roman kings. Some Patricians such as the Julii clan claimed descendants from Venus. The Patricians were the aristocracy of Rome and they held political, social and economical power. (p35) 1. Only patricians could be senators and thus consuls. (p71, 69)

2. Patricians controlled all the parliamentary offices, these where known as magistrates (minister or senior ranking public service.) 3. Patricians held all religious offices and were responsible for all the auguries (reading the future) 4. Patricians controlled all the courts and Law was based on precedent that they themselves set. 5. Patricians could not marry the plebeians. If they did the children became plebeians. 6. Only patricians could own land, and they had access to the land capture by Rome public land or the Ager Publicus. 7. Patricians could not engage in trade and industry and this was to product the opportunity for plebeian emergent and the erosion of patrician power. P 40 THE CURSUS HONORUM: (the ladder of offices) Within the roman political structure at first was only opened to patricians. The Lex Villia Annalias past in 180 BC created the Cursus Honorum which formalised the progress of patrician romans through the hierarchical political structure. The lowest rung on the ladder was the Quaestors it was essentially a fiscal (tax) official (a local government treasure.) You become a Quaestor at the age of 27. There was a 2 year interval between moving up, a 10 yr interval between holding the same position, and positions only lasted a year. Following a year as Quaestor and 2 years off it was possible now to stand for election as an Aedile which was essentially a town counsellor. The Aediles were responsible for civic affairs and whilst it was not an essential step in the Cursus Honorum it was a usual step. At 33 a patrician could run for election, as a Praetor. This was essentially a government minister. They held immense power and they were one step away from the ultimate political power of consul. The praetors were either urban or alien. The urban praetor was the supreme civil judge for roman affairs. The alien praetor dealt with affairs dealing with the Italians. The next stage in the Cursus Honorum was consul. The consulship was the equivalent to a prime ministership. There were 2 consuls who served for one year. They held authority a jointly although the senior consul (the one elected by the most votes) was dominant. The consuls were accompanied on all public occasions by 12 Lictors or bodyguards and each Lictor carried a bundle of rods known as the Fasces. These were a symbol of Imperium and imperium was the right to rule. Praetors also had imperium but at a lesser level they were accompanied by 6 Lictors. The consuls responsibilities were to: Commend the army Conduct elections Run the senate and implement senate decisions, which is ironic since the original purpose of the senate was an advisory body. Throughout the history the role and power of the senate and its membership is one of the most contested issues. By 150 BC the senate had become the controllers of the consuls rather

than the advisers to the consuls; and the senate had achieved its pinnacle of oligarchic power (ruled by the few.) THE SENATE: For the patricians of Rome the senate was their exclusive control. Starting as an advisory body of 100 respected patricians it quickly expanded to 300. Membership of the senate was determined by the censors and was based on reputation and wealth. At 30 yrs old a patrician with sufficient money and reputation could apply to be a senator. The censor selected on a bases of vacant positions, since an appointment to the senate was for life. Despite the fact that appointment was for life, senators could be removed from office, by the censors for financial or moral reasons. Novice appointment to the senate were senatores padarii, they could not speak in the senate they could only voted. They sat behind senior senators (back benchers) later on plebs were admitted to the senate patricians of the same rank always spoke first. The power of the senate came not from its ability to pass laws because it was only a process of recommendation, the senate drew its power from three things: 1. It controlled the money that is, the treasury 2. They were responsible for all foreign affairs i.e.: Romes relationships with other states. 3. They controlled all things when Rome was at war, and Rome was often at war. The senate had the ability in times of emergency to pass the (SCU) Senatus Ultimatum Consultus. In other words an emergency decree. The senate also had the authority in times of emergency to appoint dictator for a limited time period. THE ASSEMBLIES: (comitia) The senate could only refer legislation. It could not pass legislation. A senate recommendation was known as a consulta and these were passed in the appropriate assembly. There were three assemblies, the centuries, the people and the plebeians. 1. The centuriate assembly or comitia centuriata. The assembly consisted of both patricians and plebeians who ere included on the bases of economic factors and belonged to a century. A group of an equal standing, they elected consuls, praetors and censors i.e.: all the magistrates within the imperium. They also conduc