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Crossroads of Freedom Antietam

Phillip Gaitan



The battle of Antietam is the bloodiest single day in U.S. history. 6,300-6,500 soldiers on each side died in a single battle. More than any other War since, 4 times the death toll of D-Day landings

in Normandy, and more than the cumulative casualties of all of the wars in the 19th century.


In 1861 The Union position in the civil war was precarious. British interest in southern cotton made many nervous, Lincoln, already

engaged in a war with the south, could not afford to wage war with the super power.

Lack of confidence within the Union made it hard to finance the war. Selling bonds became difficult with the outcome of the war unsure. Mc Clellan was chosen to lead the Potomac army, he creates a Napoleonic

image of himself. Not up to par, low mobility and afraid of failure/risk. Ulysses S. Grant took command in Illinois, and almost immediately things

started to turning around. He opened a joint navy task force and to open up the rivers on the Cumberland, Tennessee Cumberland, Tennessee rivers connect to Ohio.


Leading into 1862 Grant leads the armies to victories by securing Nashville Nashville (a large iron/agricultural producer)

General Ambrose in 1862 helped secure almost every port in North Carolina. Good news! boosted moral in Union

Continued Federal victories hurt moral of South tired of bad news British and French are becoming increasingly concerned about the outcome

of the war because the cotton reserves had been depleted. People losing jobs, factories shut down, bad news!

Many Europeans were in favor of recognizing the Confederate states. The south was winning most of the battles In 1861

Union knew it would need victories on the battle field to finish and win the war.

Stonewall Jackson


May 1862 -- "Stonewall" Jackson Defeats Union Forces. Stonewall becomes a popular icon in the south, known for his impressive

tactics and successes Seven Days Battles, rebels take Gains mill, and push union troops back to

Harrison's landing. July 11 Lincoln appoints Henry W Halleck to as general in chief.

It doesnt look promising Recent Confederate success creates an urge to recognize south.

Europeans dependent on cotton from the south was cut off. The waning supply of cotton and the rising unemployment rates in England

and France urged some to side with the south for economic benefit. The issue of slavery was a factor in European Intervention

The working classes didnt want to support slavery/compete with free labor This had a big impact on European involvement


Fredrick Douglas strongly urged the emancipation of slaves He thought the easiest way to quell a rebellion is to prevent it

The idea was spreading that removing slaves from the southern states would cripple their war machine. Slaves were leaving their plantations and fleeing north where they were

being set free, making the idea a reality. Congress Institutes confiscation laws.

Confiscated slaves called, contraband. Lincoln calls a meeting to discuss if an emancipation proclamation is a good

idea. Cabinet suggests a stronger stance on the battlefield will make it mean

something Saying it now would be like shouting it on your retreat


Not a lot of good news came out of July-August 1862 for the Union army. Union forces in Tennessee and northern Mississippi experienced even

greater embarrassments. The capture of Corinth (May 30) and Memphis (June 6) forced union

commanders spread out, with low rivers union dependent on railroads. South was attacking railways to disrupt resupply.

Buell took his army to capture east Tennessee and failed. Popes scouts misjudged confederate intentions and capture a supply depot

with no resistance. Incompetent generals were ruining chances to win battles. Although Mc Clellen showed numerous faults, Lincoln left him in charge

he had no one else that the soldiers respected.


The political turmoil following these events was enormous Many people wanted to reunite the country (republicans) The democrats were split in two:

Some wanted to separate and stop fighting and some wanted to keep the south from succeeding

Europe was chiming of talk that it was Impossible for the north to conquer the south

England and France, anticipating that the democrats would control the house They created a joint Manifesto calling for mediation

There was a lot riding on Lees decision to cross the Potomac Victory, defeat, foreign intervention, the emancipation proclamation,

northern elections, & the willingness of the northern states to keep fighting.


Richmond news papers say confidently that Confederate forces would take Mary Land

Confederate soldiers were getting worn out from all of the fighting Their moral stayed high.

Newspapers in the north all were very unsure that the north would be able to defeat the south.

But after entering Maryland the Union troops are inspired by Mary Landers hospitality

While resting in Fredrick Mc Clellans army finds a copy of General Lees orders. Mc Clellan waits 14 hours to do anything about it Allows Lee to avert



September 1862 -- Antietam. On September 17, Confederate forces under General Lee were

caught by General McClellan near Sharpsburg, Maryland. This battle proved to be the bloodiest day of the war.

General Lee withdrew to Virginia, having lost many men McClellan was considered the victor. However he Blew it by not

perusing Lee south. Antietam decided the fate of the country in two ways

Before the battle, Lincoln rode the fence between a northern political stance promoting "crosscutting pressures from various quarters for and against emancipation as a Union war policy

And ..the need to keep border slave states and Northern Democrats in his war coalition." Lincoln said, "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong,

Lincoln knew his power and his political base too well to jeopardize the war effort by being eager to free the slaves.


After Antietam and the battles surrounding the northern press releases a barrage of uplifting news telling how the war has turned around.

The southern papers insisted that Lee only intended to take Harpers Ferry.

Five days after Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation was issued.

The battle convinced the British and French to reserve intervening action

Boarder States and democrats were upset about this.

Lincoln announces his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation (September 22), which would free all slaves in areas rebelling

against the United States, effective January 1, 1863.

Lincoln also suspends the writ of habeas corpus and authorized military trials

for Rebel insurgents, their aiders and abettors within the states, and anyone who discouraged volunteer enlistment

Democrats denounced emancipation The risk of semi-savage blacks overwhelming the north to enter the labor force.

Demos prayed on fear of whites losing jobs to blacks. Before Antietam

Democrats were getting close to taking over the house, many people were beginning to side with the peace democrats

After Antietam Mc Clellen was stuck in his ways of temerity. Lincoln waited until after the elections to remove Mc Clellen of Comand.

The elections went well for the Democrats, They almost took the house but because of the victory at Antietam the

Republicans managed to remain in control.While Antietam was not the final battle of the war, the victory there

preserved the moral of the north and stopped foreign intervention. The country would have had a much different fate had the results of Antietam been different.


Phillip Gaitan


Jamaica is the 3rd largest island of the Caribbean archipelago

The capital Kingston,is located on the southeastern coast.

Over half of Jamaica is at more than 1,609 m above sea level

The mountainous terrain has many rivers which permeate the island. together with the fertile coastal plains, these form ideal agricultural conditions.

The island of Jamaica consists of interior mountain ranges, and valleys, limestone plateau and hills, surrounded by coastal plains.

Narrow coastal plains are typical of the north coast while wider coastal plains and broad embayments occur along the south coast.

The indigenous people of Jamaica were the Arawaks

Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain, and a decade after his death the native Arawaks were exterminated

During the Atlantic slave trade Africans werebrought to Jamaica

92% of Jamaicas residents are of African decent.

3.4% of the population is African-East Indians

3.2% are Caucasians and little over 1% Chinese and African-Chinese residents

The national language of Jamaica is English

Many of the islands inhabitants speak a hybrid of English, Spanish, and Portuguese, called


There are large groups of Roman Catholics, Baptists, Anglicans, Jehovah's Witnesse