preparing elementary teachers to be effective teachers of english learners: using evidence of core...
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PREPARING ELEMENTARY TEACHERS TO BE EFFECTIVE TEACHERS OF ENGLISH LEARNERS: USING EVIDENCE OF CORE TEACHING PRACTICES TO EVALUATE PRESERVICE PROGRAM IMPACT Nancy Dubetz and Kathleen Camacho email@example.com Lehman College, City University of New York Paper presented at the 2014 NYSATE/NYAACTE Conference Saratoga Springs, New York October 15-17, 2014 Slide 2 PROGRAM EVALUATION FRAMEWORK Intended curriculum v. Experienced curriculum Using Core Teaching Practices as lens to investigate how: candidates experienced preservice program, graduates teach ELs during first two years Math Up v Traditional Program Graduates Attitudes Toward Teaching ELs Slide 3 OVERVIEW OF MATH UP PROGRAM Four cohorts of elementary teacher candidates Emphasis in math preparation and teaching special populations Graduate Coursework begins in senior year and encompasses a fifth year of graduate study Clinically rich internship model Support for Mentors Math content and informal assessment strategies (Keeping Learning on Track) Preparation & ongoing support for co-teaching Emphasis on Danielson Framework for Teaching in Candidate Evaluation Electronic Portfolio of Key Assessments ( Slide 4 THE INTENDED CURRICULUM 1.What conceptions about teaching linguistically diverse learners are communicated through course descriptions? 2.What kinds of clinical experiences/assignments with ELLS were incorporated in course or program content? 3. What is communicated about linguistic diversity in relation to other diversities? 4. What proportion of courses can be identified as having a major focus on linguistically diverse students and what was the nature of the content focus? 5.What is the degree of emphasis on linguistically diverse students across courses as evidenced by texts topics, and assignments? 6. To what degree are the needs of linguistically diverse students integrated or separated in course work? 7. Did candidates tap any additional resources to prepare them to teach ELs? Slide 5 EVIDENCE OF COURSE CONTENT FOCUSING ON LINGUISTICALLY DIVERSE LEARNERS/BILINGUAL LEARNERS/ELLS Program Artifact Program or Course Description Goals or Outcomes Sessions/ topics ReadingsAssignments/ How they are evaluated Fieldwork/clini cal experiences DiscussionsMi sc. Course EDE_744 Differentiate between cultural and linguistic differences as well as processes of language development and disabilities in the school mathematics environment. Develop knowledge and skills in providing culturally and linguistically responsive language and mathematics instruction for learners with disabilities. Al-Hassan, S., Gardner, I. (2002). Involving immigrant parents of students with disabilities in the educational process. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(5), 52-58. Interns grouped and assigned to journal article that they have to present in class. These topics are for all struggling students and some student presented activities for ELLs as they facilitate their article. Required to work in after school program at PS _, which has a lot of ELLs. Required to make assessment, review, and provide assignment for students for the coming week. Slide 6 FINDINGS FOR COHORT 2 6 credits of front loaded coursework focusing on preparation for EBLs/ELs summer prior to year long internship (bilingualism & ESL methods) Key assessments for these courses as artifacts of portfolio 50% of program courses include goals and outcomes related to teaching linguistically diverse students Majority (16 of 17) placed in classrooms for internship with ELs + one field experience working with an EBL/ELL required of all Attention to linguistic diversity embedded in coursework and candidate evaluation as one of multiple diversities Slide 7 EVIDENCE OF COURSE CONTENT FOCUSING ON LINGUISTICALLY DIVERSE LEARNERS/BILINGUAL LEARNERS/ELLS Goals/Examples Themes of LUTE: Knowledge and appreciation of diversity in individuals and in socio- cultural contexts as foundation for learning and teaching. Through fieldwork, readings, ground interaction, students will learn to adapt activities to reflect the individual needs and background for diverse learners. Sessions/Topics Teaching ALL children, equity in mathematics education- For underserved populations, including Ells. Discussions (note: documented through interview) For every lesson, we focused on academic language and tying this to good instruction with bilingual readers or struggling students and developing strategy lessons for reading. Slide 8 INVESTIGATING THE EXPERIENCED CURRICULUM Slide 9 METHOD FOR STUDYING PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS Mixed Method Triangulation Design/Data Transformation Model (Crestwell & Clark, 2007) Qualitative Data Analysis coding artifacts from electronic portfolios & observations of classroom practice using Core Teaching Practices (CTPs) Quantitative Data Analysis demographic & contextual information pre/post attitude survey data frequencies of CTPs Non parametric (chi squares, Mann Whitney test) & parametric measures (t-tests) Slide 10 CORE PRACTICES Practices that occur with high frequency in teaching, Practices that novices can enact in classrooms across different curricula or instructional approaches, Practices that novices can actually begin to master, Practices that allow novices to learn more about students and about teaching, Practices that preserve the integrity and complexity of teaching, and Practices that are research-based and have the potential to improve student achievement. (McDonald, et al, 2013) Slide 11 CORE TEACHING PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH LEARNERS Engaging English Learners with Academic Language Using Learner Resources to Enhance Learning Building on Background Knowledge Capitalizing on ELs Full Linguistic Repertoire Using Funds of Knowledge that ELs Bring to Their Learning Providing Comprehensible Input to ELs Slide 12 CORE TEACHING PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH LEARNERS Promoting Oral Language Development Oral language development emphasis to support reading/writing development Scaffolding Class Discussions Meaningful Practice Opportunities Promoting Student to Student Interactions Using Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Formal and Informal Assessment to Analyze Learning Slide 13 PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF EXPERIENCED PRESERVICE CURRICULUM Core Teaching Practices (see case study) Core Teaching Practices evident in artifacts of candidate learning Frequency of individual CTPs is dependent on the kind of artifact Some CTPs are more common than others Particular applications of a CTP more common Attitudes Attitudes not affected by Childhood language (N=55) No significant change in attitudes between beginning and end of program (N=29) Slide 14 PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF PROGRAM IMPACT IN FIRST YEAR OF TEACHING (N=11) CTPs are evident in the lessons of first year teachers Number of ELs in an internship experience might make a difference in the application of CTPs once graduates enter teaching. Number of ELs in first year classrooms might not make a difference. More CTPs are evident in lessons taught in PreK-grade 2 than in grades 3-7. Attitudes at the end of the program do not appear to be related to whether and how frequently first year teachers applied CTPs in their lessons. Slide 15 QUESTIONS 1.Does preparing teachers with core teaching practices relate to learners language development (NYSESLAT)? 2.How can front loaded instruction in core practices for effective teaching of ELs be integrated explicitly across program coursework and key assessments measuring student learning? 3.How might field and internship experiences be designed to enhance preparation for teaching ELs? 4.How effective is embedding the evaluation of candidates ability to plan for and teach linguistically diverse students in evaluating their ability to be effective for a range of learner diversities? 5.Is being a good teacher enough? (deJong & Harper, 2005) Slide 16 REFERENCES Creswell, H. W. & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed method research. Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage. deJong, E. & Harper, C. (2005). Preparing mainstream teachers for English language learners: Is being a good teacher enough? Teacher Education Quarterly, 32 (2), 101-124. McDonald, M., Kazemi, E. & Schneider Kavanagh, S. (2013). Core practices and pedagogies of teacher education: A call for a common language and collective activity. Journal of Teacher Education, 64 (5), 378-386. Pugach, M. C., & Blanton, L. P. (2012). Enacting diversity in dual certification programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 63 (4) 254-267