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Science Fair Research Paper. Preparing Your Final Draft. Order and Points. Title Page - 10 points Abstract - 10 points Table of Contents - 10 points Introduction - 10 points Background - 30 points Experimental Resources - 10 points Experimental Procedures - 30 points - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Oxford Comma

Preparing Your Final DraftScience Fair Research PaperOrder and PointsTitle Page - 10 pointsAbstract - 10 pointsTable of Contents - 10 pointsIntroduction - 10 pointsBackground - 30 pointsExperimental Resources - 10 pointsExperimental Procedures - 30 pointsData Analysis - 20 pointsConclusions - 30 pointsReferences - 10 pointsAppendix - 10 points

Order and Points ContdGeneral Guidelines - 10 points

APA formatTimes New Roman FontFont Size of 12 1 inch marginsDouble-spaced

Spelling & Grammar - 10 points

Correct spellingNo fragments or run-onsCorrect verb tenseCorrect punctuation (including commas)Correct capitalizationEntire Paper = 200 points

Common ErrorsData Analysissection needs to say the resultsDont need EVERY observationConclusions No proved; just supportedOnly make conclusions based on your resultsMake sure your pg. #s match your T.O.C.DO NOT PLAGARIZE!!

Common ErrorsNo contractionsSpell out numbers less than 10 (unless they are decimals or your actual data)Only use SI units (no inches!!!!!)Indent new paragraphsBe consistent!!!Commas, commas, COMMAS!!

CommasConventional UsesUse commas in certain conventional situations, such as dates, addresses, salutations and closings in letters, and certain titles and names.

Conventional UsesSeparate items in dates and addressesAfter Friday, November 23, 2012, address all orders to Emeryville, CA 94608.After the salutation of a personal letterDear Mr. Adams, After the closing of any letterSincerely, Abbreviations, such as Jr., Sr., or M.D. when they follow persons names.Please welcome Allen Davis, Sr

Commas are needed in a series!

Use for items in a seriesWords in a seriesAll my cousins, aunts, and uncles came to our family reunion.Phrases in a seriesThe children played in the yard, at the playground, and by the pond.Short independent clausesThe engine roared, the wheels spun, and a cloud of dust swirled behind the sports car.Two or more adjectives preceding a nounAre you going to that hot, crowded, noisy mall?

The Oxford CommaThe last comma before the last and in a series like red, white, and blue is called a serial comma, Harvard comma, and most commonly, the Oxford comma.Technically, using the Oxford comma is a style choice, and people disagree on its usage.

1.With a quick powerful leap, the stunt personbounded over the burning balcony.2.One summer when we were little, I had mumps you had measles and he had chickenpox.3.I took a flashlight a sleeping bag extra tennis shoes and a parka on our camping trip.Identify each series in the following sentences, and add commas where necessary.

Items in a series

12Combining Independent ClausesThere are three ways to combine independent clauses.Remember that independent clauses have a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. They can stand alone as a sentence by themselves, which makes them INDEPENDENT.Combining Independent ClausesSean likes to ride his motorcycle. He always wears a helmet.This is an example of separating two independent clauses into two sentences.Sean likes motorcycles, but his girlfriend doesnt.This is an example of using a comma AND a coordinating conjunction (Remember FANBOYS! The acronym stands for for, and, nor, but, or, yet, & so. Those are the coordinating conjunctions.Sean works on his motorcycle every Friday; it should be in great condition!This is an example of combining independent clauses by slapping a semicolon between them.

1.She liked the story but she did not like the ending. 2.High school graduates may go on to college or may begin working immediately.Identify whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed.

3.A few rowdy spectators tried to grab the star so the bodyguards formed a ring around him.

Independent clauses

17InterruptersUse commas to set off elements that interrupt the sentence. Direct addressNonessential informationParenthetical expressions

Direct AddressWhen someone is being directly addressed, his or her name needs to be followed byor surrounded bya comma or commas.Examples:Yes, Jimmy, your shirt is too tight.Thank you, Morgan.Mr. Colson, may I borrow a pencil?

Nonessential InformationRestrictive elements are phrases or clauses in a sentence that cannot be left out without changing the meaning of the sentence.Restrictive elements are not surrounded by commas.

Examples:Dogs that howl make me crazy.The boy who threw up on the Vortex wished he had stayed home.

Nonrestrictive elements are phrases and clauses in a sentence that can be left out because they do NOT change the meaning of the sentence.Nonrestrictive elements are surrounded by commas.

Examples:Bacon, a popular breakfast food, is becoming more scarce.The town is near the capital, which is thirty minutes from the border.Introductory ElementsIntroductory participial phrasesSwitching on the flashlight, the ranger led the way to the caves.Two or more introductory prepositional phrases or one long one.By the time I get home from school, I am ready for a snack. Introductory adverb clausesAfter he sang, the audience applauded.

1.In Mexico a favorite dish is a corn tortilla with beans.2.If youd like more variety in your diet you could add more whole grains to your meals.Identify whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed.

Introductory elements

3.Because the soybean is high in protein it has been a principal crop in Asian countries for more than five thousand years.

25Commonly Confused WordsAffect vs. EffectAFFECT-to influenceex: Lack of sleep affects the quality of your work.EFFECT-n., result, v., to accomplishex: The subtle effect of the lighting made the room look ominous.ex: Can the university effect such a change without disrupting classes?To, Too, TwoTO-towardex: I went to the University of Richmond.TOO-also, or excessivelyex: He drank too many screwdrivers and was unable to drive home.TWO-a numberex: Only two students did not turn in the assignment.Their, There, TheyreTHEIR-possessive form of theyex: Their house is at the end of the block.THERE-indicates location (hint: think of "here and there")ex: There goes my chance of winning the lottery!THEY'RE-contraction for "they are"ex: They're in Europe for the summer--again!Its, ItsITS-of or belonging to itex: The baby will scream as soon as its mother walks out of the room.IT'S-contraction for it isex: It's a beautiful day in the neighborhood.Than, ThenTHAN-use with comparisonsex: I would rather go out to eat than eat at the dining hall.THEN-at that time, or nextex: I studied for my exam for seven hours, and then I went to bed.Verb Tense

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