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Presenteeism'Presenteeism' is the act of attending work while sick. A topic that is at times considered its opposite, absenteeism, has historically received extensive attention in the management sciences, but presenteeism has only recently found a place in the research literature.Johns, G. (2010): Presenteeism in the Workplace: A review and research agenda. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 519-542. - DefinitionsIn other words, when defined as coming to work while sick, presenteeism seems to relate more to logical outcome variables and correlates. - DefinitionsTherefore, simply viewing presenteeism as a negative act that leads to productivity loss and decreased health may be restricting potential analysis of the construct. - Relationship with absenteeismIn some cases, scholars relate presenteeism to absenteeism, which is the tendency not to show up for scheduled work. Furthermore, Johns described the notion that some believe that factors that reduce absenteeism will increase presenteeism. He stated, however, that this is plausible but not always the case because he pointed out that Aronsson et al. found high rates of presenteeism in industries where absenteeism was also high. - Relationship with absenteeismCommenting on such research behavior, Johns said in his review of the literature that researchers should not infer presenteeism from absenteeism data - Temporary and permanent employmentSickness presenteeism: Prevalence, attendance-pressure factors, and an outline of a model for research - Temporary and permanent employmentAssociation of contractual and subjective job insecurity with sickness presenteeism among public sector employees - Occupations and work environmentsOutside of education and healthcare, most of the occupations had lower rates of presenteeism; however, the results did suggest that higher risks jobs, which had more physical workload and stress (biology)|stress, saw increased levels of presenteeism - Occupations and work environmentsFurthermore, workers often had few other employment options, which often resulted in increased presenteeism. - Ease of replacementPresenteeism among resident physicians - Workloads and job demandsPresent but sick: A three-wave study on job demands, presenteeism and burnout - Workaholism In addition to their high levels of presenteeism, Schaufeli et al - Performance-based self-esteemThis finding suggested that demanding work environments could interact with employees overambitious work styles, which could result in over performance and increased levels of presenteeism. - Health factorsCertain health factors serve as risk factors for presenteeism as opposed to absenteeism. Boles, Pelletier, and Lynch examined a variety of emotional and physical health symptoms and noted that the odds of reporting presenteeism were largest for those with high stress compared to those without stress.Boles, M., Pelletier, B., Lynch, W. (2004). The relationship between health risks and work productivity. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 46, 737745. - Health factors Those with poor diet and less emotional fulfillment also reported higher levels of presenteeism than those without these conditions. The researchers noted that individuals with diabetes tended to report higher levels of absenteeism as opposed to those without the condition. Individuals who partook in no physical activity were more prone to report higher levels of both absenteeism and presenteeism compared to those who took part in some physical activity. - Productivity lossEmployee health and presenteeism: A systematic review - Productivity lossPresenteeism can also have an effect on occupational injuries for workers. A 2012 study from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health showed that workers with access to paid sick leave were 28% less likely overall to suffer nonfatal injuries than workers without access to paid sick leave.Asfaw, A., Cryan, R., Rosa, R.(2012). Paid sick leave and nonfatal occupational injuries. American Journal of Public Health, 102(9), e59-e64. - Poor health and exhaustionfound that presenteeism resulted in increased exhaustion. - Measurement of presenteeism and its impact on productivityThe responses, however, were on a scale of spells of one day presenteeism, spells of 2-4 day presenteeism, and spells of 5 day or more presenteeism.Munir, F., Yarker, J., Haslam, C., Long, H., Leka, S., Griffeths, A., Cox, C - Measurement of presenteeism and its impact on productivityStanford Presenteeism Scale: Health status and employee productivity - Implications for practiceThese organizations, however, must be aware that the effects of these programs may have an immediate impact on presenteeism as opposed to simply absenteeism - Future directions and researchSpecifically, how does presenteeism relate to telework? Is an individual who works from home while he or she is sick exhibiting presenteeism? disease - Absenteeism and presenteeism The cost due to presenteeism is likely even larger, although methods of analyzing the economic impacts of presenteeism are still being developed More Information, Visit: Art of Service


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