Preservice Elementary Teachers Learning to Use Curriculum

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<ul><li><p>PRESERVICE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS LEARNING TO USE CURRICULUM MATERIALS TO PLAN AND TEACH SCIENCE </p><p>By </p><p>Kristin Lee Gunckel </p><p>A DISSERTATION </p><p>Submitted to Michigan State University </p><p>in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of </p><p>DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY </p><p>Department of Teacher Education </p><p>2008 </p></li><li><p>ABSTRACT </p><p>PRESERVICE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS LEARNING TO USE CURRICULUM MATERIALS TO PLAN AND TEACH SCIENCE </p><p>By </p><p>Kristin Lee Gunckel </p><p>New elementary teachers rely heavily on curriculum materials, but available </p><p>science curriculum materials do not often support teachers in meeting specified learning </p><p>goals, engaging students in the inquiry and application practices of science, or </p><p>leveraging students intellectual and cultural resources for learning. One approach to </p><p>supporting new elementary teachers in using available science curriculum materials is to </p><p>provide frameworks to scaffold preservice teachers developing lesson planning and </p><p>teaching practices. The Inquiry-Application Instructional Model (I-AIM) and the Critical </p><p>Analysis and Planning (CA&amp;P) tool were designed to scaffold preservice teachers </p><p>developing practice to use curriculum materials effectively to plan and teach science. </p><p>The I-AIM identifies functions for each activity in an instructional sequence. The CA&amp;P </p><p>provides guides preservice teachers in modifying curriculum materials to better fit I-AIM </p><p>and leverage students resources for learning. </p><p>This study followed three elementary preservice teachers in an intern-level </p><p>science method course as they learned to use the I-AIM and CA&amp;P to plan and teach a </p><p>science unit in their field placement classrooms. Using a sociocultural perspective, this </p><p>study focused on the ways that the interns used the tools and the mediators that </p><p>influenced how they used the tools. A color-coding analysis procedure was developed to </p><p>identify the teaching patterns in the interns planned instructional approaches and </p><p>enacted activity sequences and compare those to the patterns implied by the I-AIM and </p><p>CA&amp;P tools. Interviews with the interns were also conducted and analyzed, along with </p><p>the assignments they completed for their science methods course, to gain insight into </p></li><li><p>the meanings the interns made of the tools and their experiences planning and teaching </p><p>science. </p><p>The results show that all three interns had some successes using the I-AIM and </p><p>CA&amp;P to analyze their curriculum materials and to plan and teach science lessons. </p><p>However, all three interns used the tools in different ways, and some of their ways of </p><p>using the tools were different from the intentions for the tools. These differences can be </p><p>accounted for by the variety of mediators that influenced the interns use of the I-AIM </p><p>and CA&amp;P tools. These mediators were rooted in the Discourses at play in the various </p><p>communities in which the interns participated during their teacher preparation program. </p><p>Some of the practices and resources of these various Discourses interfered with or </p><p>supported the interns use of the I-AIM and CA&amp;P tools. Each intern took a different </p><p>trajectory through these Discourses and encountered different practices that mediated </p><p>how each used the I-AIM and CA&amp;P tools. </p><p>The results of this study suggest that the goal of preparing preservice teachers to </p><p>use the I-AIM and CA&amp;P tools should be to provide preservice teachers with </p><p>opportunities to use the tools and help them develop the metaknowledge about the tools </p><p>necessary to critically analyze the affordances and weaknesses of different approaches </p><p>to teaching science. </p></li><li><p>Copyright by KRISTIN LEE GUNCKEL 2008 </p></li><li><p>v </p><p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS </p><p>I entered the doctoral program in the Department of Teacher Education surer of </p><p>what I was moving away from than what I was moving toward. I found a community of </p><p>wonderful, caring, and intelligent people who welcomed me, invited me to participate in </p><p>their intellectual pursuits, and guided me as I found my new direction. I am most grateful </p><p>to my advisor, Dr. Edward Smith, who opened his heart and shared his passions with </p><p>me. I benefited greatly from his guidance and support and deeply respect his </p><p>commitment to science education, social justice, and family. I thank Dr. Christina </p><p>Schwarz for sharing her friendship and mentorship, and Dr. Charles Andy Anderson for </p><p>sharing his vision and experience. I would like to recognize Dr. James Gallagher, who </p><p>made many experiences possible for me as part of the Center for Curriculum Materials </p><p>in Science. I am indebted to Dr. Lynn Paine and Dr. Glenda Lappan for serving on my </p><p>committee and offering helpful advice and direction. In addition, I would like to </p><p>acknowledge the friendship and support of my colleagues and friends Dave Grueber, </p><p>Blakely Tsurusaki, Mark Enfield and Felicia Moore. You all are truly amazing people who </p><p>make the world a better place. </p><p>This dissertation would not have been possible without the participation of the </p><p>three interns, Dana, Leslie, and Nicole, who volunteered during the stressful final </p><p>semester of their elementary teacher internship to share with me their work and thoughts </p><p>about planning and teaching science. I wish them the best in their future careers as </p><p>teachers. They will make us proud. </p><p>Most of all, I want to thank my partner, Marcy Wood, who got me here in the first </p><p>place. I am looking forward to new adventures as we move ahead into the next phase of </p><p>our lives together. </p></li><li><p>vi </p><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS </p><p>List of Tables.................................................................................................................... ix List of Figures................................................................................................................... xi Chapter 1 Introduction.......................................................................................................1 </p><p>Situating the Study ......................................................................................................1 Identifying the Problem...........................................................................................1 Design-Based Research Project ............................................................................3 </p><p>Overview of the Dissertation .......................................................................................5 Chapter 2: Frameworks ..........................................................................................5 Chapter 3: Methods ................................................................................................5 Chapters 4, 5, 6: Cases of Dana, Leslie, and Nicole..............................................6 Chapter 7: Discussion and Conclusions.................................................................6 Chapter 8: Implications...........................................................................................6 </p><p> Chapter 2 Frameworks......................................................................................................7 </p><p>Chapter Overview........................................................................................................7 Teachers and Curriculum Materials ............................................................................7 A Vision for Analysis &amp; Modification of Curriculum Materials ....................................11 </p><p>Aligning with the Intended Curriculum ..................................................................11 Analyzing the Instructional Approach ...................................................................12 Taking Students into Consideration .....................................................................13 Modifying Curriculum Materials ............................................................................15 </p><p>Previous Design Cycles ............................................................................................16 The Inquiry-Application Instructional Model and Critical Analysis &amp; Planning Tool...20 </p><p>Experiences, Patterns, Explanations (EPE) .........................................................20 Inquiry-Application Instructional Model (I-AIM).....................................................22 Critical Analysis &amp; Planning Tool (CA&amp;P) ............................................................24 Initial Results using the I-AIM and CA&amp;P .............................................................26 </p><p>Research Questions..................................................................................................26 Chapter 3 Methods..........................................................................................................30 </p><p>Chapter Overview......................................................................................................30 Study Design .............................................................................................................30 Context ......................................................................................................................33 Sample Selection ......................................................................................................35 Data Collection ..........................................................................................................37 </p><p>Course Artifacts ....................................................................................................38 Classroom Observations ......................................................................................39 Interviews .............................................................................................................40 Science Methods Course .....................................................................................44 </p><p>Data Analysis ............................................................................................................44 Analysis of Interns Planned Instructional Approach and Enacted Activity </p><p>Sequence...........................................................................................................45 Analysis of Beliefs, Goals, Perceptions, and Experiences that Guided Intern Use </p><p>of Tools ..............................................................................................................50 Limitations .................................................................................................................50 </p></li><li><p>vii </p><p>Chapter 4 Dana...............................................................................................................54 Chapter Overview......................................................................................................54 Planning a Light and Color Unit.................................................................................55 </p><p>Danas Teaching Situation ...................................................................................55 Identifying the Learning Goals..............................................................................57 Curriculum Materials Analysis ..............................................................................59 Planned Instructional Approach ...........................................................................60 Comparison to the Example Electricity Instructional Approach ............................63 </p><p>Enacting the Light and Color Sequence....................................................................67 Pre-Unit Activities .................................................................................................69 Comparison of Danas Enacted Activity Sequence to I-AIM.................................74 Summary of Danas Enactment Sequence...........................................................87 </p><p>Mediators for How Dana Used I-AIM/CA&amp;P and EPE...............................................89 Danas Vision and Goals for Science Teaching ...................................................89 Danas Use of the Example Electricity Sequence ................................................96 Accessing the I-AIM Practices..............................................................................99 Summary of Mediators .......................................................................................102 </p><p>Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................103 Chapter 5 Leslie ............................................................................................................107 </p><p>Chapter Overview....................................................................................................107 Challenges Planning Science..................................................................................107 </p><p>Leslies Teaching Situation.................................................................................108 Planning a Unit on the Carbon Cycle .................................................................109 Curriculum Materials Analysis ............................................................................115 Content Knowledge ............................................................................................118 Summary of the Challenges ...............................................................................120 </p><p>Leslies Planned Instructional Approach and Teaching Enactment ........................121 Leslies Content Story ........................................................................................121 Planned Instructional Approach .........................................................................125 Enacting the Carbon Cycle Sequence ...............................................................130 Leslies Teaching Pattern ...................................................................................132 Comparison of Leslies Teaching Pattern to I-AIM .............................................146 Summary of Leslies Enacted Activity Sequence ...............................................152 </p><p>Mediators for How Leslie Used I-AIM/CA&amp;P and EPE............................................154 Talking about Using EPE &amp; I-AIM ......................................................................154 Adopting the Language of the Course................................................................157 Experiences as Many Types of Activities ...........................................................158 Developing Explanations from Pieces ................................................................161 Summary of Mediators .......................................................................................165 </p><p>Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................166 Chapter 6 Nicole ...........................................................................................................169 </p><p>Chapter Overview....................................................................................................169 Planning a Unit on Sound.....................................................</p></li></ul>

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