principles underlying teaching
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Principles Underlying TeachingPresented to: Education 14 Class
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Principle of Context Principle of Focus Principle of Socialization Principle of Individualization Principle of Sequence Principle of Evaluation
PRINCIPLE OF CONTEXT
Flemming (1996) as cited by Acero et al. (2007)A collection of data is not information. A collection of information is not knowledge. A collection of knowledge is not wisdom. A collection of wisdom is not truth.
Information relates to description, definition, or perspective (what, who, when, where) Knowledge comprises strategy, practice, method, or approach (how) Wisdom embodies principle, insight, moral or archetype (why)
Principles of context mean that instruction can be effective if learning takes place through situation and circumstances that provide setting materials for the process of learning to go on.
Principle of Context are Categorized into Six Levels Level 1 Context consists of the textbook only Predominantly verbal No problem-solving experience Lacks dynamic appeal Limited verbal responses to verbal stimuli
Level 2 Context consists of textbook together with a collateral/supplemental material Wider context More readings of expository Advocates more extensive reading
Level 3 Context consists of non-academic and current materials (magazine articles, newspaper clippings) Concrete, specific, actual, and immediate Reality vs. theories Leads to extensive discussion
Level 4 Context consists of multi-sensory aids Effective when used as aid in learning Related to contemplated learning Ineffective if learner is passive
Level 5 Context consists of demonstration and presentation by the experts Concrete setting Learning beyond classroom setting
Level 6 Field experiences: personal, social, community understanding Concrete, abundant, dynamic, readily apprehended setting for learning Goes beyond verbalization Concrete and firsthand experiences
PRINCIPLE OF FOCUS
Level 1 Focus established by page assignment in textbook Uniform structure Learning without unity memorization
Level 2 Focus established by announced topic together with page or chapter references Insight and understanding Varied learning pattern
Level 3 Focus established by broad concepts to be comprehended or problem to be solved Directed at the mental processes of the learner More varied learning patterns
Level 4 Focus established as a concept or a problem to be solved, a skill to be acquired to carry an undertaking Flexibility Acquisition of more facts and information
PRINCIPLE OF SOCIALIZATIONesmontemayor 18
Level 1 Social pattern characterized by submission Rudimentary level of socialization No group function Teacher-controlled
Level 2 Social pattern characterized by contribution Sympathetic and positive discipline Freedom Lacks authority
Level 3 Social pattern characterized by cooperation Goes beyond friendliness and sympathy Teacher as an organizer Positive team spirit
PRINCIPLE OF INDIVIDUALIZATIONesmontemayor 22
Scales of Application1. Individualization through different performance in uniform 2. Individualization through homogenous grouping 3. Individualization through contract plan
Scales of Application4. Individualization through individual instruction 5. Individualization through large units with optional-related activity 6. Individualization through individual undertakings, stemming from and contributing to the joint undertaking of the group of learners
PRINCIPLE OF SEQUENCE
Scales of Application1. Sequence through logical succession of blocks of content (lesson and course) 2. Sequence through knitting learning/ lesson/ course together by introductions, previews, pretests, reviews 3. Sequence organized in terms of readiness 4. Sequence organized in terms of lines emerging meanings
Scale 1Learning sequence can pass through the following stages: 1.Define the principle. 2.Define the principle within models. 3.Generate the principle. 4.Receive feedback. 5.Define principle or practice.
Scale 2Knotting learning of a particular lesson by 1.Supplementing discussion 2.Studies 3.Analysis of lesson 4.By introductions 5.Reviews related to the lesson at hand
PRINCIPLE OF EVALUATION
Types of Evaluation1. Diagnostic Evaluation Done at the beginning of the unit or course to determine the different levels where students can be grouped whether:
a. Slow b. Average c. Fast
Types of Evaluation2. Formative Evaluation The phase of evaluation where what the teacher does in the course of his teaching and what he is to do next are given focus. Example: a short test after the lesson proper
Types of Evaluation3. Summative Evaluation This phase of evaluation calls for summing up all pertinent data related to the performance of the individual learners.