# problem solving & decision making at ntpc

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PROBLEM SOLVING &PROBLEM SOLVING &

DECISION MAKINGDECISION MAKING

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There is a ProblemThere is a ProblemThere was a ProblemThere was a ProblemThere will be a ProblemThere will be a Problem

Because Problems are there, we areBecause Problems are there, we areherehere

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WHAT IS A PROBLEM ?WHAT IS A PROBLEM ?

A discrepency between some currentA discrepency between some currentstate of aairs and some desired statestate of aairs and some desired state

Deviation from the norm, something goesDeviation from the norm, something goes

wrong eg !y computor is not wor"ingwrong eg !y computor is not wor"ing Decision ma"ing is a case of choosingDecision ma"ing is a case of choosing

between dierent alternatives eg #hichbetween dierent alternatives eg #hichcomputor shall \$ buy%computor shall \$ buy%

Disappointment comes to those whoDisappointment comes to those whoma"e a prior appointment with the futurema"e a prior appointment with the future

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TYPES OF PROBLEMS?TYPES OF PROBLEMS?

&'*T +&'*T +

\$!P'TA*T\$!P'TA*T

*T &'*T +*T &'*T +

\$!P'TA*T\$!P'TA*T

&'*T + *T&'*T + *T

\$!P'TA*T\$!P'TA*T*T &'*T +*T &'*T +

*T \$!P'TA*T*T \$!P'TA*T

Based on \$mportance + Timelines

URGENCY

\$!P

'TA*-

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VIEWING THE PROBLEMVIEWING THE PROBLEM

A problem for one may not be aA problem for one may not be a

problem at all for the otherproblem at all for the other

A big problem for one can be a minorA big problem for one can be a minorproblem for the otherproblem for the other

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PROBLEMSPROBLEMS

The Process .The Process . \$s systematic + Thorough\$s systematic + Thorough Provide evidence to show how theProvide evidence to show how the

problem was solvedproblem was solved /elps avoid the rush to 0ump into solution/elps avoid the rush to 0ump into solution

without "nowing the cause of the problemwithout "nowing the cause of the problem nables possible causes to be testednables possible causes to be tested \$s particularly suitable for comple1\$s particularly suitable for comple1

problemsproblems

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PROBLEMSPROBLEMS

The Process .The Process .

\$s time consuming\$s time consuming

'elies on thorough investigation'elies on thorough investigation

'e2uires discipline, information'e2uires discipline, information

see"ing + -ollatonsee"ing + -ollaton

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THE PROBLEM SOLVINGTHE PROBLEM SOLVING

PROCESSPROCESS

33 De4ne the ProblemDe4ne the Problem

55 ather 'elevant informationather 'elevant information

66 \$dentify Possible -auses\$dentify Possible -auses77 \$dentify a possible solution\$dentify a possible solution

88 Test the possible causesTest the possible causes

99 #or" out solutions#or" out solutions:: !a"e a decision!a"e a decision

;; !onitor the results!onitor the results

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1. DEFINE THE PROBLEM1. DEFINE THE PROBLEM

\$nvestigate e1actly what has gone\$nvestigate e1actly what has gone

wrongwrong

Try to identify the problem by loo"ingTry to identify the problem by loo"ing

in routine statistical returns, progressin routine statistical returns, progress

meetings, suggestion schemes etcmeetings, suggestion schemes etc

A rising tide of complaints could stemA rising tide of complaints could stem

from faulty machinery, poorfrom faulty machinery, poorpac"aging, sta absence, poor stapac"aging, sta absence, poor sta

training, false mar"eting hype

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2. GATHER RELEVANT2. GATHER RELEVANT

INFORMATIONINFORMATION

As" the following .As" the following . #hat is the problem% g Productivity in#hat is the problem% g Productivity in

the =hop>oorthe =hop>oor #hat is not the problem% g#hat is not the problem% g

2uipment, wor"ing conditions2uipment, wor"ing conditions #hat is dierent about the problem%#hat is dierent about the problem%

#ho are aected by the problem%#ho are aected by the problem% #ho are not aected by the problem%#ho are not aected by the problem% #hat things are aected by the#hat things are aected by the

problem%problem%

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3. IDENTIFY POSSIBLE CAUSES3. IDENTIFY POSSIBLE CAUSES

-auses usually relate to People,-auses usually relate to People,=ystems or 2uipment=ystems or 2uipment

Do not blame the Tool when it couldDo not blame the Tool when it could

be the peratorbe the perator #hat has changed from the norm#hat has changed from the norm

helps in identifying the causehelps in identifying the cause

#hen did the problem occur%#hen did the problem occur% #hen did it not e1ist%#hen did it not e1ist% #hat changes might be relevant%#hat changes might be relevant%

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4. IDENTIFY THE POSSIBLE4. IDENTIFY THE POSSIBLE

SOLUTIONSSOLUTIONS

nce you have identi4ed the li"elynce you have identi4ed the li"elycause, wor"out what you are loo"ing forcause, wor"out what you are loo"ing forto "now and how will you "now theto "now and how will you "now the

samesame #hat changes might be relevant%#hat changes might be relevant% #hat causes might this suggest%#hat causes might this suggest%

\$mposition of a new scheme\$mposition of a new scheme ?ac" of consultation?ac" of consultation \$nade2uate training\$nade2uate training Dominance of certain individuals etcDominance of certain individuals etc

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5. TEST THE POSSIBLE5. TEST THE POSSIBLE

CAUSESCAUSES

o bac" to the information so faro bac" to the information so far

assembledassembled

\$f a cause 4nds a good match with\$f a cause 4nds a good match with

how, where and when the problemhow, where and when the problem

occurs, to what e1tent it occurs andoccurs, to what e1tent it occurs and

who is aected by itwho is aected by it

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. WORKOUT SOLUTIONS. WORKOUT SOLUTIONS

There may be a no of possibleThere may be a no of possible

solutionssolutions

=ome more appropriate than others=ome more appropriate than others

This is the time to move fromThis is the time to move from

problem analysis to method forproblem analysis to method for

decision ma"ingdecision ma"ing

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!. METHOD FOR DECISION!. METHOD FOR DECISION

MAKINGMAKING

\$dentify Alternative =olutions and Assess\$dentify Alternative =olutions and Assess

the conse2uences of implementing eachthe conse2uences of implementing each

Testing solution against causes is oneTesting solution against causes is one

mechanism for doing thismechanism for doing this Another is roup BrainstormingAnother is roup Brainstorming

=elect the most promising alternative=elect the most promising alternative

There may not be an ideal solution butThere may not be an ideal solution butthere should be a best onethere should be a best one

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". MONITOR THE RESULTS". MONITOR THE RESULTS

Trac" the changes because of whatTrac" the changes because of what

has been implementedhas been implemented

Ta"e care to monitor how otherTa"e care to monitor how other

changes might impact on the actionchanges might impact on the action

you have chosen, and vice versayou have chosen, and vice versa

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SOLUTIONSSOLUTIONS

asy to =olveasy to =olve

'e2uired orts to =olve'e2uired orts to =olve

Di@cult to =olveDi@cult to =olve -annot be =olved-annot be =olved

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MODE OF SOLVINGMODE OF SOLVING

PROBLEMPROBLEM

33 \$nsensitive to the Problem\$nsensitive to the Problem

55 Duc" the ProblemDuc" the Problem

66 Pass the ProblemPass the Problem77 ?inger the Problem?inger the Problem

88 -onfront the Problem-onfront the Problem

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PROBLEM SOLVING STYLESPROBLEM SOLVING STYLES

There are dierent =tylesThere are dierent =tyles

Directive =tyleDirective =tyle Analytical =tyleAnalytical =tyle -onceptual =tyle-onceptual =tyle

Behaviourial =tyleBehaviourial =tyle

Though distinctive features are seen, theThough distinctive features are seen, thestyles overlapstyles overlap

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DIRECTIVE STYLEDIRECTIVE STYLE

=tructured \$nformation=tructured \$nformation

@cient + ?ogical@cient + ?ogical

Does not Access all AlternativesDoes not Access all Alternatives ocus on =hort term 'esultsocus on =hort term 'esults

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ANALYTICAL STYLEANALYTICAL STYLE

Desire for more \$nformationDesire for more \$nformation

-onsider arious Alternatives-onsider arious Alternatives

-areful Decision !a"ers-areful Decision !a"ers ocus on ?ong Termocus on ?ong Term

Ability to Adapt and -ope up withAbility to Adapt and -ope up with

=ituation=ituation

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CONCEPTUAL STYLECONCEPTUAL STYLE

-onsider many Alternatives-onsider many Alternatives

ocus long 'angeocus long 'ange ery ood at 4nding -reativeery ood at 4nding -reative

=olutions=olutions

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BEHAVIOURIAL STYLEBEHAVIOURIAL STYLE

Decision !a"ers who wor" well withDecision !a"ers who wor" well with

othersothers

-oncerned with Achievement of-oncerned with Achievement of

Peers + Team membersPeers + Team members

'eceptive to =uggestions + Team'eceptive to =uggestions + Team

Tries to avoid con>ict and see"sTries to avoid con>ict and see"sacceptanceacceptance

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CONSTRAINTS IN PROBLEMCONSTRAINTS IN PROBLEM

SOLVINGSOLVING

Performance valuationPerformance valuation

ormal 'egulationsormal 'egulationsTime -onstraintsTime -onstraints

/istorical Precedents/istorical Precedents

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PERFORMANCEPERFORMANCE

EVALUATIONEVALUATION

TargetTarget

'eward =ystem'eward =ystem 'is" Aversion'is" Aversion

?ow Pro4le C Avoid -ontroversy?ow Pro4le C Avoid -ontroversy

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FORMAL REGULATIONSFORMAL REGULATIONS

'ules for verything'ules for verything

Procedure for verythingProcedure for verything

Problems have to go throughProblems have to go throughProcedureProcedure

Activity TrapActivity Trap

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TIME CONSTRAINTSTIME CONSTRAINTS

A host of decisions have to be madeA host of decisions have to be made

at the same time (eg end of theat the same time (eg end of the

month)month)

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HISTORICAL PRECEDENTSHISTORICAL PRECEDENTS

Problems are not solved in a vacuumProblems are not solved in a vacuum

They have conte1tThey have conte1t

Decisions made in the past areDecisions made in the past areghosts that continuously hauntghosts that continuously haunt

current choicescurrent choices

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ETHICS # 3 CHOICESETHICS # 3 CHOICES

so as to provide greatest good for theso as to provide greatest good for the

greatest numbergreatest number

Protection of 'ights + Privileges asProtection of 'ights + Privileges as

provided in the -onstitutionprovided in the -onstitution

ocus on usticeocus on ustice

airness, \$mpartiality, 2uitableairness, \$mpartiality, 2uitable

distribution of bene4ts + -ostsdistribution of bene4ts + -osts

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CAUTIONSCAUTIONS

Do not 0ump at every ProblemDo not 0ump at every Problem

?et Team !embers solve their?et Team !embers solve their

problemproblem

Try to help Boss in =olving ProblemsTry to help Boss in =olving Problems

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REMEMBER \$REMEMBER \$

\$f we are not a part of the =olution,\$f we are not a part of the =olution,

then we are a part of the problemthen we are a part of the problem

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THANK YOUTHANK YOU