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Advances in Meat Research - Volume 11 Production and Processing of Healthy Meat, Poultry and Fish Products The Advances in Meat Research series reviews recent advances in meat science and technology. Each volume concentrates on one specific topic and discusses it in depth. The chapter authors are recognized as auth-orities in their fields and are drawn from around the world providing an international perspective. The following volumes are also available: Volume 6 Meat and Health Volume 7 Growth Regulations in Farm Animals Volume 8 Inedible Meat By-Products Volume 9 Quality Attributes and their Measurement in Meat, Poultry and Fish Products Volume 10 HACCP in Meat, Poultry and Fish Processing JOIN US ON THE INTERNET VIA WWW, GOPHER, FTP OR EMAIL: WWW: http://www.thomson.com GOPHER: gopher.thomson.com A service of I(jJP" FTP: ftp.thomson.com EMAIL: findit@kiosk.thomson.com Advances in Meat Research - Volume 11 Production and Processing of Healthy Meat, Poultry and Fish Products Edited by A.M. PEARSON College of Agricultural Sciences Oregon State University Corvallis Oregon USA and T.R. DUTSON College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Experimental Station Oregon State University Corvallis Oregon USA 1m l~ BLACKIE ACADEMIC & PROFESSIONAL An Imprint of Chapman & Hall London Weinheim . New York Tokyo Melbourne Madras Published by Blackie Academic and Professional, an imprint of Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SEt 8HN, UK Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SEI 8HN, UK Chapman & Hall GmbH, Pappelallee 3, 69469 Weinheim, Germany Chapman & Hall USA, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA Chapman & Hall Japan, ITP-Japan, Kyowa Building, 3F, 2-2-1 Hirakawacho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan DA Book (Aust.) Pty Ltd, 648 Whitehorse Road, Mitcham 3132, Victoria, Australia Chapman & Hall India, R. Seshadri, 32 Second Main Road, CIT East, Madras 600 035, India First edition 1997 1997 Chapman & Hall Softcover reprint of the hardcover I st edition 1997 Typeset in 10/12 pt Times by Acorn Bookwork, Salisbury ISBN-13: 978-1-4612-8429-1 e-ISBN-l3: 978-1-46l3-1125-6 DOl: 1O.l007/978-1-46l3-1125-6 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the UK Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be reproduced, stored, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction only in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publishers at the London address printed on this page. The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 97-66369 @)Printed on acid-free text paper, manufactured in accordance with ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (permanence of Paper) Contents 1 Demand for healthful meat, poultry and fish products 1 D.A.T. SOUTHGATE 1.1 Introduction I 1.2 Role of meat, poultry and fish products in the diet I 1.2.1 Nutritional contributions 2 1.2.2 Social-cultural aspects 2 1.2.3 Religious aspects 4 1.3 Health concerns 4 1.3.1 Changing nutritional concerns 5 1.3.2 Total fat intake 6 1.3.3 Composition of fat intake 7 1.3.4 Cholesterol and coronary heart disease 9 1.3.5 Salt - relationship to stroke and coronary heart disease 9 1.3.6 Protein - meat consumption and cancer 10 1.3.7 Contaminants 10 1.3.8 Hormones 12 1.3.9 Additives 12 1.3.10 Microbiological safety 13 1.4 The impact of health concerns on the consumer 15 1.4.1 Presentation of dietary and health information and advice 15 1.4.2 Impact on consumer choices 19 1.5 Rationale for producing healthy muscle foods 22 1.5.1 Nutritional rationale for change 22 1.5.2 Rationale for the producer and retailer 23 1.6 Responses by the industry 24 1.6.1 Reduction in fat by trimming and reformulation 25 1.6.2 Production of leaner carcases 26 1.7 Research needs 27 1.7.1 Epidemiological and clinical studies 27 1.7.2 Mechanisms 27 1.7.3 Development of leaner products 28 1.7.4 Consumer attitudes and beliefs 28 1.7.5 Ethical and ecological concerns 28 1.8 Summary 28 References 29 2 Contribution of meat, fish and poultry to the human diet 32 A.E. BENDER 2.1 Introduction 32 2.2 Dietary recommendations 32 2.3 Food composition tables 33 2.4 Contributions of meat and poultry 37 2.4.1 Protein 37 2.4.2 Fat 39 2.4.3 Mineral salts 41 2.4.4 Effects of cooking 42 2.4.5 Vitamins 43 vi CONTENTS 2.5 Contributions of fish 43 2.5.1 White versus fatty fish 44 2.5.2 Omega fatty acids 44 2.5.3 Shellfish 44 2.6 Research needs 45 2.7 Summary 46 References 46 3 Labeling of low and reduced fat/salt products 48 1. QUICK 3.1 Introduction 48 3.2 Mandatory labeling requirements 49 3.2.1 Product name 49 3.2.2 Other required labeling features 50 3.2.3 Nutrition labels 52 3.3 Nutrient claims 56 3.3.1 Types of nutrient claims 56 3.3.2 General rules for nutrient claims 60 3.4 Compliance 61 3.4.1 Over- or under-declared nutrients 61 3.5 International policies 62 3.5.1 Policies outside the USA 62 3.5.2 Exemptions to nutritional labeling and claims 62 3.6 Summary 62 References 63 4 Principles and applications in production of reduced and low fat products 65 A.M. PEARSON 4.1 Introduction 65 4.2 Rationale for reducing fat-energy levels in meat, poultry and fish 65 4.2.1 Health issues associated with excess fat intake 66 4.3 Problems encountered in producing low fat products 68 4.3.1 Flavor 68 4.3.2 Tenderness 69 4.3.3 Juiciness 70 4.3.4 Color 71 4.3.5 Dryness-rubberiness 72 4.4 Reducing fat content by production practices 73 4.4.1 Breeding and selection 73 4.4.2 Feeding and management 73 4.4.3 Trimming of excess fat 74 4.5 Reducing fat content by processing procedures 74 4.5.1 Addition of protein additives 75 4.5.2 Addition of nonprotein additives 76 4.5.3 Other techniques 76 4.6 Research needs 77 4.6.1 Basic studies on mechanism and sensation of juiciness 77 4.6.2 Fat mimetics and substitutes 77 4.6.3 Improving leanness by breeding and genetics 78 4.6.4 Altering leanness by feeding and management 78 4.6.5 Protein and nonprotein additives 78 4.7 Summary 79 References 79 5 6 CONTENTS Scientific basis for reducing the salt (sodium) content in food products T.F.T. ANTONIOS and G.A. MACGREGOR 5.1 Introduction 5.1.1 Importance of blood pressure 5.1.2 Proportion of population affected 5.2 Importance of sodium and chloride 5.2.1 Physiological needs for sodium and chloride 5.2.2 Historical background and consumption patterns 5.3 Salt and high blood pressure 5.3.1 Early observations 5.3.2 Epidemiological studies 5.3.3 Intervention studies 5.3.4 Evidence in animals other than humans 5.4 Salt restriction in patients with essential hypertension 5.5 Other factors that affect blood pressure 5.5.1 Role of potassium 5.5.2 Obesity and other factors 5.6 Other adverse effects of excessive salt intake 5.6.1 Dietary salt and stroke 5.6.2 Dietary salt and cardiac hypertrophy 5.6.3 Dietary salt and renal injury 5.6.4 Dietary salt and bronchial asthma 5.6.5 Dietary salt and cancer 5.6.6 Dietary salt and osteoporosis 5.7 Research needs 5.8 Summary References Reduction of cholesterol levels in meat, poultry and fish products A.D. CLARKE 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Reduction of cholesterol by animal modification 6.2.1 Genetic approach 6.2.2 Dietary alteration 6.2.3 Pharmaceutical agents 6.2.4 Immunization 6.2.5 Endpoint for marketing 6.3 Reduction of cholesterol by product modification 6.3.1 Cooking or rendering 6.3.2 Dilution of cholesterol 6.4 Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) 6.4.1 Fundamentals of SFE 6.4.2 Applications of SFE 6.4.3 Cosolvent extraction 6.5 Research needs 6.6 Summary References Vll 84 84 84 84 85 85 85 86 86 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 90 91 92 93 93 94 95 96 98 101 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 105 105 107 108 108 109 112 112 113 114 7 Reducing the fat content by removal of excess fat and by selection 118 A.H. KIRTON, J.N. CLARKE, CA. MORRIS and P.A. SPECK 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Effects of consumer demands for leaner meat 7.2.1 Influence on commercial practices 118 119 119 viii 8 9 CONTENTS 7.2.2 Effects on retail practices 119 7.2.3 Impact upon trade in the European Community, United Kingdom, United States and worldwide 120 7.3 Trimming excess fat from cuts and carcasses 120 7.3.1 Leaner cuts 120 7.3.2 Upgrading of fats 121 7.4 Selection 121 7.4.1 Leaner cuts and carcasses 121 7.4.2 Leaner live animals 124 7.5 Reduction of fat content by breeding and genetics 125 7.5.1 Breed substitution and crossing 125 7.5.2 Genetic selection 128 7.5.3 Major genes 132 7.5.4 Gene mapping and markers 134 7.5.5 Gene transfer for improved animal growth and carcass characteristics 137 7.6 Research needs 139 7.6.1 Market signals and demand 139 7.6.2 Consumer research 141 7.6.3 Searching for new genes 141 7.7 Summary 141 Acknowledgements 142 References 142 Reducing the fat content by production practices M.E. DIKEMAN 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Influence of nutrition 8.2.1 Full versus restricted feeding 8.2.2 Dietary energy and/or protein concentrations and ratios 8.2.3 Antibiotics, probiotics and ionophores 8.3 Effects of sex condition on composition . 8.3.1 Cattle 8.3.2 Sheep 8.3.3 Pigs 8.3.4 Poultry 8.4 Stage of growth curve 8.4.1 Pigs 8.4.2 Cattle 8.4.3 Sheep 8.4.4 Poultry 8.5 Biological type of animal 8.5.1 Cattle 8.5.2 Sheep 8.6 Growth promotants 8.6.1 Anabolic steroids 8.6.2 Somatotropin 8.6.3 ~-Adrenergic agonists 8.7 Research needs 8.8 Summary References Mimetic and synthetic fat replacers for the meat industry P.J. SHAND 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Functional properties of fat 9.2.1 Effects of fat in meat products 9.2.2 Functional properties of fat 150 150 150 151 156 159 160 160 161 161 162 163 163 163 164 165 165 165 166 166 166 170 174 181 182 184 191 191 191 192 192 CONTENTS 9.3 Fat replacer definitions and classification 9.3.1 Fat replacers 9.3.2 Fat mimetics 9.3.3 Fat substitutes and analogs 9.3.4 Fat barrier compounds 9.3.5 Strategies for fat reduction 9.3.6 Selection of fat replacers 9.3.7 Mechanisms of action of fat replacers 9.4 Protein-based fat replacers 9.4.1 Traditional plant and animal proteins 9.4.2 Microparticulated proteins 9.5 Carbohydrate-based fat replacers 9.5.1 Starches and derivatives 9.5.2 Cellulose and derivatives 9.5.3 Gums 9.5.4 Other polysaccharides 9.6 Fat-based fat replacers 9.6.1 Alternative fats and oils 9.6.2 Structured triglycerides 9.6.3 Emulsifiers 9.7 Synthetic fat replacers 9.7.1 Sucrose polyester 9.7.2 Other experimental synthetic fat substitutes 9.8 Research needs 9.9 Summary Acknowledgements References 10 Use of additives from plant and animal sources in production of IX 193 193 193 193 193 193 194 194 194 194 195 196 197 198 199 202 202 202 202 203 203 203 205 206 207 207 207 low fat meat and poultry products 210 S.J. EILERT and R.W. MANDIGO 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Addition of plant products 10.2.1 Soy proteins 10.2.2 Other plant-based proteins 10.2.3 Starches, flours and fibers 10.2.4 Gums and carrageenan 10.3 Addition of animal products 10.3.1 Deboned poultry, meat and fish 10.3.2 Collagen and gelatin 10.3.3 Blood proteins 10.3.4 Milk proteins 10.4 Research needs 10.5 Summary References 11 Production of low fat and reduced fat ground beef D.L. HUFFMAN and R.D. HUFFMAN ILl Introduction 11.2 Demand for low fat and reduced fat ground beef 11.2.1 Consumer demand 11.2.2 Trends in production - historical perspective 11.2.3 Consumer studies 11.3 Sensory properties of low fat and reduced fat ground beef 11. 3 .1 Juiciness and textural properties 11.3.2 Flavor enhancement 210 211 211 213 214 216 217 217 219 220 221 222 222 222 226 226 227 227 227 228 228 229 229 x CONTENTS 11.4 Production of low fat and reduced fat ground beef 11.4.1 Beef raw materials 11.4.2 Non-meat ingredients 11.4.3 Morphology 11.4.4 Addition of water binders 11.4.5 Method of cookery 11.4.6 Storage stability 11.5 Research needs 11.6 Summary References 12 Low fat/salt cured meat products J.F. PRICE 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Low fat cured meats 12.2.1 Selection of low fat muscles and cuts 12.2.2 Removal of excess fat 12.2.3 Low fat cured meats 12.3 Low salt cured meats 12.3.1 Salt replacers - substitutes 12.3.2 Other approaches to salt replacement 12.3.3 Examples of calculations 12.4 Research needs 12.5 Summary References 230 230 231 233 234 236 237 238 238 239 242 242 243 243 244 245 251 252 253 254 254 255 255 13 Overcoming sensory problems in low fat and low salt products 257 F.J. MONAHAN and D.J. TROY 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Low fat meat products 13.2.1 Flavor problems in low fat products 13.2.2 Texture problems in low fat products 13.2.3 Color problems in low fat products 13.3 Low salt meat products 13.3.1 Flavor problems in low salt products 13.3.2 Texture problems in low salt products 13.3.3 Color problems in low salt products 13.4 Research needs 13.4.1 Assessing texture and flavor characteristics 13.4.2 Flavor perception 13.4.3 Factors affecting sensory characteristics 13.5 Summary References 14 Reducing salt (sodium) levels in processed meat, poultry and 257 257 257 262 267 268 268 271 274 275 275 275 275 276 276 fish products 282 J.E. COLLINS 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Stability and spoilage 14.2.1 Microbial considerations - spoilage microbes 14.2.2 Microbial considerations - pathogenic microbes 282 283 283 284 CONTENTS xi 14.3 Reducing sodium levels 285 14.3.1 Functions of sodium chloride in processed meats 285 14.3.2 Salt substitution 286 14.3.3 Product manipulation and temperature changes in reduced sodium products 288 14.3.4 Use of other ingredients 289 14.4 Research needs 291 14.5 Summary 292 References 293 15 Low fat and low salt poultry products D.M. SMITH 298 15.1 Introduction 298 15.2 Influence of production practices on fat content 299 15.2.1 Diet versus genetics 299 15.3 Fat content of poultry meat 300 15.3.1 Comparison of chicken and turkey meat with and without skin 300 15.4 Fatty acid composition of poultry meat 303 15.4.1 Proportions of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids 303 15.4.2 Altering fatty acid composition by diet 305 15.5 Cholesterol content of poultry meat 305 15.5.1 Species effects 305 15.5.2 Supercritical fluid extraction 306 15.6 Mechanically deboned poultry 306 15.6.1 Composition 306 15.7 Ground poultry products 308 15.7.1 Variability in composition 308 15.8 Pre-cooked poultry products 308 15.8.1 Effects of cooking 309 15.9 Composition of other avian species 309 15.10 Further processed products 309 15.10.1 Effects of dilution 309 15.10.2 Effects of serving size 310 15.10.3 Functionality of fat 310 15.10.4 Deli breast products 310 15.10.5 Cured poultry products 312 15.10.6 Process modifications 315 15.11 Low salt poultry products 315 15.1Ll Species and cut effects 316 15.11.2 Problems encountered in reducing salt content 316 15.12 Research needs 317 15.12.1 Need for mechanistic studies 317 15.12.2 Understanding flavor 317 15.12.3 Effects of water binders 318 15.12.4 Fatty acid profiles and functionality 318 15.13 Summary 318 References 319 16 Low fat and reduced fat fish products M.T. MORRISSEY 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Nutrition content of fish 16.2.1 Categories of seafood 16.2.2 Fat content of finfish 321 321 322 322 322 xii CONTENTS 16.2.3 Fat content of crustaceans and molluscs 325 16.2.4 Cholesterol content of seafoods 326 16.2.5 Unusual fatty acids in fish and seafoods 326 16.2.6 Effect of aquaculture on fatty acids 326 16.2.7 Distribution of fat in muscle tissue 327 16.3 Seafood processing 328 16.3.1 General 328 16.3.2 Removal of lipids 328 16.3.3 Filleting of fish 329 16.3.4 Value-added products 329 16.3.5 Drying of fish 331 16.3.6 Canned fish 331 16.4 Advantages of fish muscle 331 16.4.1 Beneficial effects of lipids from seafood 331 16.4.2 Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 332 16.4.3 00-3 Fatty acids 332 16.4.4 Other effects of fish oils 333 16.5 Surimi 334 16.5.1 Production of surimi and surimi-based seafood 334 16.5.2 Processing of surimi 335 16.6 Other processes 338 16.6.1 Fish protein concentrate (FPC) 338 16.6.2 Marine beef (MB) 339 16.6.3 Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) 340 16.7 Research needs 341 16.8 Summary 342 References 343 17 Microbial stability and safety of healthy meat, poultry and fish products 347 L. LEISTNER 17.1 Introduction 347 17.2 Microbial risks of muscle food products 347 17.2.1 Pathogenic microorganisms 348 17.2.2 Spoilage microorganisms 348 17.3 Preservation of muscle food products 349 17.3.1 Important preservative factors (hurdles) 349 17.3.2 Application of combined processes (hurdle technology) 349 17.4 Microbial stability of low fat and/or low salt muscle food products 350 17.4.1 Water activity (aw ) 353 17.4.2 Acidity (pH) 354 17 .4.3 Temperature (heating and chilling) 354 17.4.4 Preservatives (additives) 355 17.4.5 Redox potential (Eh ) 355 17.4.6 Microstructure (submerged colonies) 355 17.5 Stability management of low fat and/or low salt muscle food products 355 17.5.1 Measurement and evaluation of hurdles 356 17.5.2 Product design and process control 356 17.6 Research needs 357 17.7 Summary 358 References 358 Index 361 Contributors T.F.T. Antonios A.E. Bender A.D. Clarke J.N. Clarke J.E. Collins M.E. Dikeman S.J. Eilert D.L. Huffman Address for correspondence: R.D. Huffman A.H. Kirton Senior Registrar, Blood Pressure Unit, Department of Medicine, St George's Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 ORE, UK Professor Emeritus, University of London, 2, Willow Vale, Fetcham, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 9TE, UK Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton, New Zealand Vice President, Scientific and Technical Affairs, American Meat Institute, 1700 N. Moore Street, Suite 1600, Arlington, VA 22209, USA Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-0201, USA Manager, Fresh/processed Pork Research, Excel Product Development Center, 2901 N. Mead, Wichita, KS 67219, USA Professor of Meat Science Emeritus, Food Technology Institute, 2 Comer Hall, Auburn University, Auburn AL 36849-5430, USA 219 Deer Run Road, Auburn, AL 36832, USA Manager, Meat Product Development, Koch Beef Co., P.O. Box 2256, Wichita, KS 67201, USA Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton, New Zealand xiv L. Leistner G.A. MacGregor R.W. Mandigo F.J. Monahan C.A. Morris M.T. Morrissey A.M. Pearson J.F. Price J. Quick P.J. Shand CONTRIBUTORS International Food Consultant, formerly Director and Professor of the Federal Centre of Meat Research, An den Weinbergen 20, D-95326 Kulmbach, Germany Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine, Blood Pressure Unit, Department of Medicine, St George's Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 ORE, UK Professor, Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 830908, Lincoln, NE 68583-0908, USA Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton, New Zealand Director, Oregon State University Seafood Laboratory, 250 36th Street, Astoria, OR 97103, USA Professor Emeritus, Office of the Dean, College of Agricultural Sciences, Oregon State University, 126 Strand Agriculture Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331-2212, USA Meat Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA Judith Quick and Associates, 1755 Edna Court, Tracy, CA 95376, USA Department of Applied Microbiology and Food Science, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5A8 D.M. Smith D.A.T. Southgate P.A. Speck D.J. Troy CONTRIBUTORS xv Professor, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1224, USA Formerly Head of Nutrition, Diet and Health Department, Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK 8 Penryn Close, Norwich NR4 7L Y, UK Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton, New Zealand Teagasc, The National Food Centre, Dunsinea, Castleknock, Dublin 15, Ireland Preface The central theme for this volume was chosen since consumers have great interest in purchasing low fat, low salt and reduced cholesterol meat, poultry and fish products. As in past volumes, experts in the field have been chosen to write chapters with emphasis on their breadth of knowl-edge in each specific area. Efforts were also made to obtain authors from different countries in order to give the book a worldwide perspective. Chapter I stresses the nutritional and sensory properties that meat, poultry and fish products make to healthful diets and discusses consumer concerns about these products. Chapter 2 covers dietary recommendations in major consumer nations, along with data from food composition tables and the dietary contributions of meat, poultry and fish to meeting dietary needs. Chapter 3 discusses the labeling of low and reduced fat/salt prod-ucts which, although written mainly from the US viewpoint, may serve as a model for labeling in other countries. Chapter 4 reviews the rationale for reducing fat-energy levels in muscle foods, problems encountered in their production and how these may be solved. Chapter 5 discusses the scientific basis for reducing the salt (sodium) content in food products and the health benefits derived from lowering salt intake. Methods of reducing the cholesterol content of these animal products is reviewed in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 outlines procedures that can be used in producing animals and poultry with a reduced fat content by breeding and selection and also discusses the removal of excess fat from carcasses and cuts and its effect on fat content. Chapter 8 extends methods for reducing fat content to the influence of production practices, such as sex condition, stage of the growth curve, biological type and the effects of various growth promo-tants on composition. Chapter 9 reviews the possible use of various syn-thetic and mimetic fat replacers by the meat industry, explaining their structures, action and probable usefulness. Chapter 10 follows up by reviewing the plant and animal products that are currently being used or show promise for usage in producing low fat meat, poultry and fish prod-ucts. Chapter 11 discusses production of low and reduced fat ground beef, drawing information from the literature and the authors' personal experi-ence. Chapter 12 then follows up by covering production of low fat-low salt cured meat products with some examples of the calculations necessary to achieve the desired reduction. Chapter 13 discusses overcoming flavor, color and texture problems that are often encountered in the production of low salt and low fat prod-ucts. Chapter 14 reviews microbial problems that are inherent to low salt xviii PREFACE products and some procedures that can be used to reduce salt levels while still maintaining food safety and freedom from spoilage. Chapter 15 follows up by discussing production of low fat and low salt poultry prod-ucts and some problems occurring in their production. Chapter 16 covers the fat content of various seafoods and the influence of processing on composition. This chapter also reviews the beneficial effects of fish lipids and concludes by discussing production of some special products, includ-ing surimi, fish protein concentrate, marine beef and fish protein hydro-lysate. Finally, Chapter 17 reviews some microbial problems and the safety of reduced fat and low salt products. Emphasis is placed on the use of hurdle technology to improve the safety of these products. A unique feature of the book is a section on research needs in each chapter, which provides readers with knowledge of the research needed in each area. November 1996 A.M. Pearson Corvallis, OR

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