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<ul><li><p>Advances in Meat Research - Volume 11 </p><p>Production and Processing of Healthy Meat, Poultry and Fish Products </p></li><li><p>The Advances in Meat Research series reviews recent advances in meat science and technology. Each volume concentrates on one specific topic and discusses it in depth. The chapter authors are recognized as auth-orities in their fields and are drawn from around the world providing an international perspective. </p><p>The following volumes are also available: </p><p>Volume 6 Meat and Health Volume 7 Growth Regulations in Farm Animals Volume 8 Inedible Meat By-Products Volume 9 Quality Attributes and their Measurement in Meat, </p><p>Poultry and Fish Products Volume 10 HACCP in Meat, Poultry and Fish Processing </p><p>JOIN US ON THE INTERNET VIA WWW, GOPHER, FTP OR EMAIL: WWW: http://www.thomson.com GOPHER: gopher.thomson.com A service of I(jJP" FTP: ftp.thomson.com EMAIL: findit@kiosk.thomson.com </p></li><li><p>Advances in Meat Research - Volume 11 </p><p>Production and Processing of Healthy Meat, Poultry and </p><p>Fish Products Edited by </p><p>A.M. PEARSON College of Agricultural Sciences </p><p>Oregon State University Corvallis Oregon </p><p>USA </p><p>and </p><p>T.R. DUTSON College of Agricultural Sciences </p><p>Agricultural Experimental Station Oregon State University </p><p>Corvallis Oregon </p><p>USA </p><p>1m l~ BLACKIE ACADEMIC &amp; PROFESSIONAL </p><p>An Imprint of Chapman &amp; Hall </p><p>London Weinheim . New York Tokyo Melbourne Madras </p></li><li><p>Published by Blackie Academic and Professional, an imprint of Chapman &amp; Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SEt 8HN, UK </p><p>Chapman &amp; Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SEI 8HN, UK Chapman &amp; Hall GmbH, Pappelallee 3, 69469 Weinheim, Germany Chapman &amp; Hall USA, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA Chapman &amp; Hall Japan, ITP-Japan, Kyowa Building, 3F, 2-2-1 Hirakawacho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan </p><p>DA Book (Aust.) Pty Ltd, 648 Whitehorse Road, Mitcham 3132, Victoria, Australia Chapman &amp; Hall India, R. Seshadri, 32 Second Main Road, CIT East, Madras 600 035, India </p><p>First edition 1997 1997 Chapman &amp; Hall Softcover reprint of the hardcover I st edition 1997 Typeset in 10/12 pt Times by Acorn Bookwork, Salisbury ISBN-13: 978-1-4612-8429-1 e-ISBN-l3: 978-1-46l3-1125-6 DOl: 1O.l007/978-1-46l3-1125-6 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the UK Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be reproduced, stored, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction only in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publishers at the London address printed on this page. </p><p>The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library </p><p>Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 97-66369 </p><p>@)Printed on acid-free text paper, manufactured in accordance with ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (permanence of Paper) </p></li><li><p>Contents </p><p>1 Demand for healthful meat, poultry and fish products 1 D.A.T. SOUTHGATE 1.1 Introduction I 1.2 Role of meat, poultry and fish products in the diet I </p><p>1.2.1 Nutritional contributions 2 1.2.2 Social-cultural aspects 2 1.2.3 Religious aspects 4 </p><p>1.3 Health concerns 4 1.3.1 Changing nutritional concerns 5 1.3.2 Total fat intake 6 1.3.3 Composition of fat intake 7 1.3.4 Cholesterol and coronary heart disease 9 1.3.5 Salt - relationship to stroke and coronary heart disease 9 1.3.6 Protein - meat consumption and cancer 10 1.3.7 Contaminants 10 1.3.8 Hormones 12 1.3.9 Additives 12 1.3.10 Microbiological safety 13 </p><p>1.4 The impact of health concerns on the consumer 15 1.4.1 Presentation of dietary and health information and advice 15 1.4.2 Impact on consumer choices 19 </p><p>1.5 Rationale for producing healthy muscle foods 22 1.5.1 Nutritional rationale for change 22 1.5.2 Rationale for the producer and retailer 23 </p><p>1.6 Responses by the industry 24 1.6.1 Reduction in fat by trimming and reformulation 25 1.6.2 Production of leaner carcases 26 </p><p>1.7 Research needs 27 1.7.1 Epidemiological and clinical studies 27 1.7.2 Mechanisms 27 1.7.3 Development of leaner products 28 1.7.4 Consumer attitudes and beliefs 28 1.7.5 Ethical and ecological concerns 28 </p><p>1.8 Summary 28 References 29 </p><p>2 Contribution of meat, fish and poultry to the human diet 32 A.E. BENDER 2.1 Introduction 32 2.2 Dietary recommendations 32 2.3 Food composition tables 33 2.4 Contributions of meat and poultry 37 </p><p>2.4.1 Protein 37 2.4.2 Fat 39 2.4.3 Mineral salts 41 2.4.4 Effects of cooking 42 2.4.5 Vitamins 43 </p></li><li><p>vi CONTENTS </p><p>2.5 Contributions of fish 43 2.5.1 White versus fatty fish 44 2.5.2 Omega fatty acids 44 2.5.3 Shellfish 44 </p><p>2.6 Research needs 45 2.7 Summary 46 References 46 </p><p>3 Labeling of low and reduced fat/salt products 48 1. QUICK 3.1 Introduction 48 3.2 Mandatory labeling requirements 49 </p><p>3.2.1 Product name 49 3.2.2 Other required labeling features 50 3.2.3 Nutrition labels 52 </p><p>3.3 Nutrient claims 56 3.3.1 Types of nutrient claims 56 3.3.2 General rules for nutrient claims 60 </p><p>3.4 Compliance 61 3.4.1 Over- or under-declared nutrients 61 </p><p>3.5 International policies 62 3.5.1 Policies outside the USA 62 3.5.2 Exemptions to nutritional labeling and claims 62 </p><p>3.6 Summary 62 References 63 </p><p>4 Principles and applications in production of reduced and low fat products 65 A.M. PEARSON </p><p>4.1 Introduction 65 4.2 Rationale for reducing fat-energy levels in meat, poultry and fish 65 </p><p>4.2.1 Health issues associated with excess fat intake 66 4.3 Problems encountered in producing low fat products 68 </p><p>4.3.1 Flavor 68 4.3.2 Tenderness 69 4.3.3 Juiciness 70 4.3.4 Color 71 4.3.5 Dryness-rubberiness 72 </p><p>4.4 Reducing fat content by production practices 73 4.4.1 Breeding and selection 73 4.4.2 Feeding and management 73 4.4.3 Trimming of excess fat 74 </p><p>4.5 Reducing fat content by processing procedures 74 4.5.1 Addition of protein additives 75 4.5.2 Addition of nonprotein additives 76 4.5.3 Other techniques 76 </p><p>4.6 Research needs 77 4.6.1 Basic studies on mechanism and sensation of juiciness 77 4.6.2 Fat mimetics and substitutes 77 4.6.3 Improving leanness by breeding and genetics 78 4.6.4 Altering leanness by feeding and management 78 4.6.5 Protein and nonprotein additives 78 </p><p>4.7 Summary 79 References 79 </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>6 </p><p>CONTENTS </p><p>Scientific basis for reducing the salt (sodium) content in food products T.F.T. ANTONIOS and G.A. MACGREGOR 5.1 Introduction </p><p>5.1.1 Importance of blood pressure 5.1.2 Proportion of population affected </p><p>5.2 Importance of sodium and chloride 5.2.1 Physiological needs for sodium and chloride 5.2.2 Historical background and consumption patterns </p><p>5.3 Salt and high blood pressure 5.3.1 Early observations 5.3.2 Epidemiological studies 5.3.3 Intervention studies 5.3.4 Evidence in animals other than humans </p><p>5.4 Salt restriction in patients with essential hypertension 5.5 Other factors that affect blood pressure </p><p>5.5.1 Role of potassium 5.5.2 Obesity and other factors </p><p>5.6 Other adverse effects of excessive salt intake 5.6.1 Dietary salt and stroke 5.6.2 Dietary salt and cardiac hypertrophy 5.6.3 Dietary salt and renal injury 5.6.4 Dietary salt and bronchial asthma 5.6.5 Dietary salt and cancer 5.6.6 Dietary salt and osteoporosis </p><p>5.7 Research needs 5.8 Summary References </p><p>Reduction of cholesterol levels in meat, poultry and fish products A.D. CLARKE 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Reduction of cholesterol by animal modification </p><p>6.2.1 Genetic approach 6.2.2 Dietary alteration 6.2.3 Pharmaceutical agents 6.2.4 Immunization 6.2.5 Endpoint for marketing </p><p>6.3 Reduction of cholesterol by product modification 6.3.1 Cooking or rendering 6.3.2 Dilution of cholesterol </p><p>6.4 Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) 6.4.1 Fundamentals of SFE 6.4.2 Applications of SFE 6.4.3 Cosolvent extraction </p><p>6.5 Research needs 6.6 Summary References </p><p>Vll </p><p>84 84 84 84 85 85 85 86 86 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 90 91 92 93 93 94 95 96 98 </p><p>101 </p><p>101 101 102 102 103 104 104 105 105 107 108 108 109 112 112 113 114 </p><p>7 Reducing the fat content by removal of excess fat and by selection 118 A.H. KIRTON, J.N. CLARKE, CA. MORRIS and P.A. SPECK 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Effects of consumer demands for leaner meat </p><p>7.2.1 Influence on commercial practices </p><p>118 119 119 </p></li><li><p>viii </p><p>8 </p><p>9 </p><p>CONTENTS </p><p>7.2.2 Effects on retail practices 119 7.2.3 Impact upon trade in the European Community, United Kingdom, </p><p>United States and worldwide 120 7.3 Trimming excess fat from cuts and carcasses 120 </p><p>7.3.1 Leaner cuts 120 7.3.2 Upgrading of fats 121 </p><p>7.4 Selection 121 7.4.1 Leaner cuts and carcasses 121 7.4.2 Leaner live animals 124 </p><p>7.5 Reduction of fat content by breeding and genetics 125 7.5.1 Breed substitution and crossing 125 7.5.2 Genetic selection 128 7.5.3 Major genes 132 7.5.4 Gene mapping and markers 134 7.5.5 Gene transfer for improved animal growth and carcass characteristics 137 </p><p>7.6 Research needs 139 7.6.1 Market signals and demand 139 7.6.2 Consumer research 141 7.6.3 Searching for new genes 141 </p><p>7.7 Summary 141 Acknowledgements 142 References 142 </p><p>Reducing the fat content by production practices M.E. DIKEMAN 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Influence of nutrition </p><p>8.2.1 Full versus restricted feeding 8.2.2 Dietary energy and/or protein concentrations and ratios 8.2.3 Antibiotics, probiotics and ionophores </p><p>8.3 Effects of sex condition on composition . 8.3.1 Cattle 8.3.2 Sheep 8.3.3 Pigs 8.3.4 Poultry </p><p>8.4 Stage of growth curve 8.4.1 Pigs 8.4.2 Cattle 8.4.3 Sheep 8.4.4 Poultry </p><p>8.5 Biological type of animal 8.5.1 Cattle 8.5.2 Sheep </p><p>8.6 Growth promotants 8.6.1 Anabolic steroids 8.6.2 Somatotropin 8.6.3 ~-Adrenergic agonists </p><p>8.7 Research needs 8.8 Summary References </p><p>Mimetic and synthetic fat replacers for the meat industry P.J. SHAND 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Functional properties of fat </p><p>9.2.1 Effects of fat in meat products 9.2.2 Functional properties of fat </p><p>150 </p><p>150 150 151 156 159 160 160 161 161 162 163 163 163 164 165 165 165 166 166 166 170 174 181 182 184 </p><p>191 </p><p>191 191 192 192 </p></li><li><p>CONTENTS </p><p>9.3 Fat replacer definitions and classification 9.3.1 Fat replacers 9.3.2 Fat mimetics 9.3.3 Fat substitutes and analogs 9.3.4 Fat barrier compounds 9.3.5 Strategies for fat reduction 9.3.6 Selection of fat replacers 9.3.7 Mechanisms of action of fat replacers </p><p>9.4 Protein-based fat replacers 9.4.1 Traditional plant and animal proteins 9.4.2 Microparticulated proteins </p><p>9.5 Carbohydrate-based fat replacers 9.5.1 Starches and derivatives 9.5.2 Cellulose and derivatives 9.5.3 Gums 9.5.4 Other polysaccharides </p><p>9.6 Fat-based fat replacers 9.6.1 Alternative fats and oils 9.6.2 Structured triglycerides 9.6.3 Emulsifiers </p><p>9.7 Synthetic fat replacers 9.7.1 Sucrose polyester 9.7.2 Other experimental synthetic fat substitutes </p><p>9.8 Research needs 9.9 Summary Acknowledgements References </p><p>10 Use of additives from plant and animal sources in production of </p><p>IX </p><p>193 193 193 193 193 193 194 194 194 194 195 196 197 198 199 202 202 202 202 203 203 203 205 206 207 207 207 </p><p>low fat meat and poultry products 210 S.J. EILERT and R.W. MANDIGO 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Addition of plant products </p><p>10.2.1 Soy proteins 10.2.2 Other plant-based proteins 10.2.3 Starches, flours and fibers 10.2.4 Gums and carrageenan </p><p>10.3 Addition of animal products 10.3.1 Deboned poultry, meat and fish 10.3.2 Collagen and gelatin 10.3.3 Blood proteins 10.3.4 Milk proteins </p><p>10.4 Research needs 10.5 Summary References </p><p>11 Production of low fat and reduced fat ground beef D.L. HUFFMAN and R.D. HUFFMAN ILl Introduction 11.2 Demand for low fat and reduced fat ground beef </p><p>11.2.1 Consumer demand 11.2.2 Trends in production - historical perspective 11.2.3 Consumer studies </p><p>11.3 Sensory properties of low fat and reduced fat ground beef 11. 3 .1 Juiciness and textural properties 11.3.2 Flavor enhancement </p><p>210 211 211 213 214 216 217 217 219 220 221 222 222 222 </p><p>226 </p><p>226 227 227 227 228 228 229 229 </p></li><li><p>x CONTENTS </p><p>11.4 Production of low fat and reduced fat ground beef 11.4.1 Beef raw materials 11.4.2 Non-meat ingredients 11.4.3 Morphology 11.4.4 Addition of water binders 11.4.5 Method of cookery 11.4.6 Storage stability </p><p>11.5 Research needs 11.6 Summary References </p><p>12 Low fat/salt cured meat products J.F. PRICE </p><p>12.1 Introduction 12.2 Low fat cured meats </p><p>12.2.1 Selection of low fat muscles and cuts 12.2.2 Removal of excess fat 12.2.3 Low fat cured meats </p><p>12.3 Low salt cured meats 12.3.1 Salt replacers - substitutes 12.3.2 Other approaches to salt replacement 12.3.3 Examples of calculations </p><p>12.4 Research needs 12.5 Summary References </p><p>230 230 231 233 234 236 237 238 238 239 </p><p>242 </p><p>242 243 243 244 245 251 252 253 254 254 255 255 </p><p>13 Overcoming sensory problems in low fat and low salt products 257 F.J. MONAHAN and D.J. TROY </p><p>13.1 Introduction 13.2 Low fat meat products </p><p>13.2.1 Flavor problems in low fat products 13.2.2 Texture problems in low fat products 13.2.3 Color problems in low fat products </p><p>13.3 Low salt meat products 13.3.1 Flavor problems in low salt products 13.3.2 Texture problems in low salt products 13.3.3 Color problems in low salt products </p><p>13.4 Research needs 13.4.1 Assessing texture and flavor characteristics 13.4.2 Flavor perception 13.4.3 Factors affecting sensory characteristics </p><p>13.5 Summary References </p><p>14 Reducing salt (sodium) levels in processed meat, poultry and </p><p>257 257 257 262 267 268 268 271 274 275 275 275 275 276 276 </p><p>fish products 282 J.E. COLLINS </p><p>14.1 Introduction 14.2 Stability and spoilage </p><p>14.2.1 Microbial considerations - spoilage microbes 14.2.2 Microbial considerations - pathogenic microbes </p><p>282 283 283 284 </p></li><li><p>CONTENTS xi </p><p>14.3 Reducing sodium levels 285 14.3.1 Functions of sodium chloride in processed meats 285 14.3.2 Salt substitution 286 14.3.3 Product manipulation and temperature changes in reduced sodium </p><p>products 288 14.3.4 Use of other ingredients 289 </p><p>14.4 Research needs 291 14.5 Summary 292 References 293 </p><p>15 Low fat and low salt poultry products D.M. SMITH </p><p>298 </p><p>15.1 Introduction 298 15.2 Influence of production practices on fat content 299 </p><p>15.2.1 Diet versus genetics 299 15.3 Fat content of poultry meat 300 </p><p>15.3.1 Comparison of chicken and turkey meat with and without skin 300 15.4 Fatty acid composition of poultry meat 303 </p><p>15.4.1 Proportions of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids 303 </p><p>15.4.2 Altering fatty acid composition by diet 305 15.5 Cholesterol content of poultry meat 305 </p><p>15.5.1 Species effects 305 15.5.2 Supercritical fluid extraction 306 </p><p>15.6 Mechanically deboned poultry 306 15.6.1 Composition 306 </p><p>15.7 Ground poultry products 308 15.7.1 Variability in composition 308 </p><p>15.8 Pre-cooked poultry products 308 15.8.1 Effects of cooking 309 </p><p>15.9 Composition...</p></li></ul>

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