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Day 1

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Day 1

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MindfulnessTheory of Mind

Guide to LifeIdeal Performance State


PersonalityFive Factor Model

Personal Construct TheoryRepertory Grid


How to become an expertSausage Dogs

Team RolesMindset

Pre-mortemLeadership Styles


Morning Afternoon

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Let me be really clear, I’m not an expert in what you do.

My job is not to tell you what to do.

I don’t know what you do. You do.

My job is provoke you into asking hard questions of yourself, colleagues, bosses.

Self aware decisions and thought through strategies outperform blind stumbling.

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Lucky Dip Task


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Dr Ellen Langer, Psychologist


Mindfulness = Process of drawing novel distinctions

Staying in the present

Mindlessness = repetition + failure to question

Use of conditional ‘could be’

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Theory of mindFalse beliefs

Theory of mind – ability of an individual to respond differently according to assumptions about beliefs and

desires of another individual, rather than according only to the others overt behaviour

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Guide to Life


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It might take a while but I’ll sort it out.

Anyone who rejects me is a fool. I won’t bother

myself with fools.

I’m not going to be able to cope.

Everyone is going to hate me.

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Self beliefHigh


Introvert Extravert

It might take a while but I’ll sort it out.

Anyone who rejects me is a fool. I won’t bother

myself with fools.

I’m not going to be able to cope.

Everyone is going to hate me.

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Dr Dorothy Rowe, Psychologist

Guide to life

The secret of life is that there is no secret!

Understanding self & others is exactly the same process

Your choice - how you interpret what happens to you

Meaning structure = how you feel + top priorities

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Ideal Performance State

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Dr Roy Baumeister, Psychologist

Marshmallow test (Walter Mischel )

Willpower as a muscle metaphor-can get fatigued, can’t perform indefinitely-self-regulatory depletion = blood glucose-self-regulation comes at a cost-focus one ‘self-regulation’ at a time-self-regulatory exercise strengthens ‘willpower muscle’-2 weeks of self-regulation by maintaining good posture

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We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence then, is not an act,

but a habit

Aristotle, Greek philosopher

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Psycho-geometricsSquares are hard working

and dependableLike order & to analyse.

Dislike changeOrganised, loyal,

conservative, can be boringTriangles are leaders

Tend to be ambitious, motivated, decisive

and focusedCan be strong willed

and egotistical

Rectangles always searching pot of gold at end of rainbow They’re inquisitive, exciting,

growing and like changeCan be confused and


Circles are peacemaker and soothers

Like to nurture othersTend to be generous,

warm and friendlyCan be talkative and


Squiggles tend to be creative, intuitive, witty and

motivatedCan be eccentric, impulsive

and ungovernable

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A person’s characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts and feelings.

The stable and enduring aspects of the individual which distinguish them from others, while forming a

basis for predicting their future behaviour.

A combination of relatively enduring dimensions of individual differences on which they can be measured


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Predictive behaviour

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Predictive behaviour

Birds of a feather

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Predictive behaviour

Opposites repel

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How do you measure?

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Freud Jung

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Charles Darwin Francis Galton Raymond Cattell

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

68% 16%16%

Normal Distribution

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18 70 Age

Crystalised intelligence

Fluid intelligence


Speed of




knowledge, experience



Source: Baltes, P.B. (1987) ‘Theoretical propositions on lifespan developmental’, Developmental Psychology, no.23

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Source: Belbin, M. (1993) Team Roles at Work, Elsevier


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Scale Raw Left Score Right Score %1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A Distant AloofReserved, Distant, Detached, Impersonal.

EmpathicAffable, Personable, Participating, Warm-hearted.

ß Low IntellectanceLacking confidence in own intellectual abilities.

High IntellectanceConfident of own intellectual abilities.

C Affected by FeelingsEmotional, Changeable, Labile, Moody.

Emotionally StableMature, Calm, Phlegmatic.

E AccommodatingPassive, Mild, Humble, Deferential.

DominantAssertive, Competitive, Aggressive, Forceful.

F Sober SeriousRestrained, Taciturn, Cautious.

EnthusiasticLively, Cheerful, Happy-go-Lucky, Carefree.

G ExpedientSpontaneous, Disregarding of rules & obligations.

ConscientiousPerservering, Dutiful, Detail conscious.

H RetiringTimid, Self-conscious, hesitant in social settings.

Socially-boldVenturesome, Talkative, Socially confident.

I Hard-headedUtilitarian, Unsentimental, Lacks aesthetic sensitivity.

Tender-mindedSensitive, Aesthetically aware, Sentimental.

L TrustingAccepting, Unsuspecting, Credulous, Tolerant.

SuspiciousSceptical, Cynical, Doubting, Critical.

M ConcreteSolution-focused, Realistic, Practical, Down-to-earth.

AbstractImaginative, Absent-minded, Impractical.

N DirectGenuine, Artless, Open, Forthright, Straightforward.

RestrainedDiplomatic, Socially astute, Socially aware, Discreet.

O ConfidentSecure, Self-assured, Unworried, Guilt-free.

Self-doubtingWorrying, Insecure, Apprehensive.

Q1 ConventionalTraditional, Conservative, Conforming.

RadicalExperimenting, Open to change, Unconventional.

Q2 Group-orientatedSociable, Group dependent, a ‘Joiner’.

Self-sufficientSolitary, Self-reliant, Individualistic.

Q3 InformalUndisciplined, Uncontrolled, Lax, Follows own urges.

Self-disciplinedCompulsive, Fastidious, Exacting willpower.

Q4 ComposedRelaxed, Placid, Patient.

Tense-drivenImpatient, Low frustration tolerance, Irritable.

Personality traits

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Five Factor Model

Source: Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). The NEO personality inventory manual. Odessa, FL

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Big Personality Test

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Introvert Extravert


* number of relationships a person is comfortable with

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Introvert Extravert

14%2% 34% 34% 14% 2%

Orientated towards their own inner world of thoughts, perceptions and experiences. Not requiring much social contact and external stimulation.

Orientated to the outer world of people, events and external activities. Needing social

contact and external stimulation.


* Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial

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Challenger Adapter


* number of sources from which one takes ones norms

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14%2% 34% 34% 14% 2%

Challenger AdapterSelf-determined with regard to own thoughts and actions. Independent minded. May be intractable, strong-willed and confrontational.

Agreeable, tolerant and obliging. Neither stubborn, disagreeable nor opinionated.

Is likely to be happy to compromise.

* Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial

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Perseverer Explorer

* number of interests one has and the extent to which they are pursued


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14%2% 34% 34% 14% 2%

Perseverer ExplorerInfluenced more by hard facts and tangible evidence than subjective experiences. May not be open to new ideas, and may be insensitive to subtleties and possibilities

Influenced more by ideas, feelings and sensations than tangible evidence and hard

facts. Open to possibilities and subjective experiences.

* Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial

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Flexible Focused

Self Control

* number of goals a person is focused on

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Self Control

14%2% 34% 34% 14% 2%

Flexible FocusedExhibiting low levels of self-control and restraint. Not influenced by social norms and internalised parental expectations.

Exhibiting high levels of self-control. Influenced by social norms

and internalised parental expectations.

* Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial

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Emotional Stability

* number and strength of stimuli that trigger negative emotions

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14%2% 34% 34% 14% 2%

Resilient ReactorWell adjusted, calm, resilient and able to cope with emotionally demanding situations.

Vulnerable, touchy, sensitive, prone to mood swings, challenged by emotionally gruelling


Emotional Stability

* Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial

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Always remember that you are absolutely unique. Just

like everyone else.

Margaret Mead, Anthropologist

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George Kelly, Psychologist

Personal Construct Theory

Ideographic v nomothetic

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Repertory Grid

Constructs Elements1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


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Repertory Grid

1. Think of specific people who occupy important roles in your life (e.g. parents, partner, children, friends, colleagues . . .)

2. Write name or initial as an element on the grid

3. Select triads. In what way are 2 of the 3 alike and the third is different

4. Write down bi-polar constructs

5. Mark triad on construct

6. Repeat triads/constructs

7. Score elements on 1-5 scale on construct

8. Look for patterns

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Repertory Grid

Constructs Elements1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

DH PH BF EY EP SJ RP CW1 Happy - sad 2 2 5 4 4 2 3 12 Intelligent - dumb 4 4 5 4 3 3 1 33 Generous - mean 2 5 4 5 2 1 2 34 Lively - reserved 3 2 5 4 4 1 3 15 Religious – not rel. 1 3 2 3 4 1 4 36 Warm - cold 2 5 4 4 2 1 1 37 Altruistic - egotistic 3 5 3 5 2 1 3 2.

Triad Same Different

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10,000 hours

Dr Anders Ericsson, Psychologist

The making of an expert-10,000 hours of deliberate practice-Practice designed to improve performance-It can be repeated a lot-Feedback on results continuously available-It’s highly demanding mentally-It’s not much fun

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Team working

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Sausage Dogs

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1. Using up to 10 twisting balloons design, create and pitch an object which has the personality of the team [20 min]

2. Present back to other group

Sausage Dogs



Green team Purple team


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Team Roles

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Team role Strengths Weaknesses Red-flags

Co-ordinator Set goals, delegates well, creates environment, promotes decision-making

Liable to offload work to others, inclination to be lax

Takes all credit for team effort

Shaper-Driver Challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure, tackles issues

Prone to provocation and frustration. Likely to offend others

Inability to back down or let others ‘save face’

Evaluator-Critic Cool head, objective, good judgement

Lacks drive and ability to motivate others

Cynical, acts as a brake, prevents change

Implementer Puts ideas into practice, reliable, efficient, follows procedures

Inflexible, resistant to change

Obstructs change

Team Builder Cooperative, amenable, social glue, diplomatic

Indecisive in critical situations

Avoids conflicts

Resource Investigator

Extrovert, enthusiastic, explorer, good networker

Over-optimistic, loss of enthusiasm for projects

Let projects drop, unmindful of client commitments

Inspector Completer

Conscientious, spots errors, delivers on time

Perfectionist, worrier, reluctant to delegate

Obsessive behaviour

Innovator Creative, imaginative, radical, problem solver

Not detailed focused, preoccupied with ideas, not practically minded

Blind to other inputs, uncooperative

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Team Roles

* Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial

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Team Builder

Resource Investigator



The Shaper-Driver is the one who takes charge of the specific projects and tasks of the group. His/her

function is to give shape to the team’s efforts and to unify the contributions of team members into a

clearly defined action plan

The Evaluator-Critic will not often contribute ideas to the group but will see his/her role as that of

providing constructive criticism wherever he/she can see a flaw. Although he/she can have a

dampening effect on team morale, he/she is nevertheless a highly valued team member on

account of their judgement.

The Implementer is the practical organiser of the group. He/she is the one who turns decisions

and strategies into defined manageable tasks.

The Team-Builder is more concerned with the emotional undercurrents of, and the social relationships within the

group. His/her role is to promote harmony within the group and to counterbalance discord generated by other members

of the team such as the Shaper-Driver or Evaluator-Critic

The Resource Investigator is the liaison person of the team who communicates the intentions and requirements of the team to others outside.

The Co-ordinator takes the role of chairman, although that may not necessarily be his/her official capacity. He/she

presides over the team and co-ordinates its efforts to meet external targets. He/she sets the agenda of the team, selects the problems for the team’s consideration and

establishes priorities.The Innovator is the team’s source of original ideas. Although others have ideas too, theirs are the most original and radical. They tend to be both intelligent and imaginative and may be the source of entirely fresh ideas and new insights

The Inspector-Completor is the worrier of the group. He/she is not happy until he/she has personally checked every detail and has ensured that nothing has been overlooked. Although pedantic in his/her approach, he/she ensures that careless mistakes are not made by the team.

Team Roles

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Dr Carol Dweck, Psychologist


Fixed mindset v growth mindset

Intelligence is static v intelligence can be developed

Avoid challenges v embrace challenges

See effort as fruitless v see effort as path to mastery

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Red team Blue team


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Brief (part 1)

1. Imagine a total fiasco with your new commissioned project

2. Generate reasons for failure [10 min]3. Consolidate list4. Present back to other group

End of part 1 . . . .


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Brief (part 2)1. Swap over lists2. Decide on top 3 issues of greatest concern3. Develop recommendations to avoid or

minimise the problems [10 min]4. Present recommendations back to other



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Managing teams

Professor Peter Drucker

The task of leadership is to create an alignment of strengths, so as to

make peoples’ weaknesses irrelevant.

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Leadership Style

Subordinate Style

Management styles

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Delegative Leaders are characterised by delegating work to subordinates. Since their style is not strongly democratic, the process of delegation may not involve consultation. As a result, subordinates will generally be assigned work rather than have active input into how projects should be conducted. However, once the work has been assigned only little direction will be provided and subordinates will largely be expected to work with the minimum of supervision. Although such a leadership style may not be everybody's preference those who are naturally independent may enjoy the freedom allowed by such managers.

Negotiative Leaders motivate subordinates by encouraging them, through incentives etc., to work towards common objectives.

Hence, through a process of negotiation attempts will be made to arrive at some mutually equitable arrangement with the other

members of the team so as to motivate them to work in a particular way. Negotiative Leaders tend to rely on their skills of

persuasion to achieve their stated goals. Many Negotiative Leaders have well developed image management skills and they typically

utilise these to moderate their approach according to the circumstances in which they find themselves. This capability,

coupled with a desire to achieve, can mean that sometimes they adopt unconventional methods to achieve their desired objectives.

Participative leaders are primarily concerned with getting the best out of a team as a whole. Hence, they encourage

contributions from all members of a team and believe that by pooling ideas and coming to a consensus view the best solutions

to problems will naturally arise. They are unlikely to impress their own wishes and opinions onto the other members of the

group but see their role as an overseer of the democratic process. This will involve ensuring each member of the group is given the opportunity to express their opinion and that no one

member imposes a disproportionate influence on group decisions.

The Consultative Leader combines elements of both democratic and directive leadership orientations. They value group discussion and tend

to encourage contributions from the separate members of the team. However, although group discussions will be largely democratic in nature, Consultative Leaders typically make the final decision as to

which of the varying proposals should be accepted. Hence, the effectiveness of this leadership style will be dependent upon the

individual's ability to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each of the varying ideas produced by the members of the group and their

capacity to encourage them to accept a final decision that may not necessarily be that favoured by the majority.

Directive Leaders are characterised by having firm views about how and when things should be done. As such they leave little leeway for subordinates to display independence, believing that they should adhere to the methods and schedules as originally laid down. Having a high goal-orientation and being particularly concerned with results the Directive Leader will tend to closely monitor the behaviour and performance of others. This may lead them to be perceived as a little cool and detached. This impression may be reinforced by the fact that they will be lead by their own opinions rather than inviting others to contribute their ideas. Being a particularly self-directed leader may lead to the ideas of others to be excluded from consideration at the expense of their own. However, this will only prove to be problematic should their own judgement and abilities be called into question.

Leadership Styles

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Reciprocating Subordinates tend to be individuals with an emotionally mature outlook, who rarely become upset by criticism or setbacks. As such they generally feel comfortable about promoting their own ideas or engaging in negotiations with managers concerning the best approach to projects. Hence, they are likely to be most complementary to the Negotiative Leader and, given that the Reciprocative Subordinates usually have strong views of their own, any exchanges between subordinate and manager will typically be productive.

Self-Reliant Subordinates tend to be most effective when working in an environment that allows them freedom to express their own ideas. They are generally innovative individuals who are also concerned with achieving results; thus, their ideas will typically be imaginative but tailored to solving the particular problem in question. However, problems may occur if such individuals are required to work in environments that require strict adherence to existing procedures and methods. In such situations Self-Reliant Subordinates tend to feel that their individuality is being stifled thus causing them to become discontented and irritable. It would therefore be inappropriate to pair them with a manager with a directive style as this will invariably result in a mismatch of approaches.

Collaborative Subordinates believe that the problem-solving power of the team is more than that of the individual members included within that team: their primary concern is that the team as a whole achieves its objective. Collaborative subordinates relish group discussions and will typically propose innovative ideas of their own, as well as being more than happy to discuss the ideas of others. As strong believers in constructive criticism, they show little reluctance when it comes to pointing out weaknesses in other peoples' ideas; similarly they are usually happy to accept the criticisms of others. Collaborative Subordinates are at their most effective when working under managers who share their views about group participation - i.e., those who encourage collaboration rather than those with a more directive style.

Receptive Subordinates are typically accommodating individuals who are eager to complete the work that is assigned to them in accordance with pre-specified procedures. In this mode, their colleagues will see a more traditional and conventional side to her nature. Quite possibly this means that she will leave the generation of innovative ideas to other members of their team. As a result, the Receptive Subordinate will take the stance that their role is to execute the ideas of others to the best of their ability.

Informed Subordinates typically produce creative ideas and innovative solutions. Their capacity to subject their own ideas and those of others to a detailed critical analysis usually means that their proposed solutions rarely have any major flaws. Managers generally approach Informative Subordinates in the knowledge that their ideas and opinions will be sound and informed. Consultative Leaders will value such individuals within their team, viewing them as a useful and reliable source of information.

Subordinate Styles

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1 2 3

4 5 6

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BiasesCognitive biases are psychological tendencies that cause

the human brain to draw incorrect conclusions

Self-serving bias

Optimistic bias

Motivational bias

Fundamental attribution error

Actor/observer effect

Signal amplification bias

Perceptual salience

Loss aversion bias

Risky shift bias

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Which way now?

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Success is the ability to go from one failure to another with no

loss of enthusiasm.

Sir Winston Churchill

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