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  • 08/07 1

    Promising Practices for Transcription of Textbooks for Kindergarten, First, Second, and Third Grade.

    This is a draft document developed with members of the BANA Early Materials Production Committee and an APH focus group, assigned the task of writing guidelines to transcribe early literacy textbooks. Focus group participants were transcribers, teachers of the visually impaired, reading specialists, and literacy experts. These practices will serve as a testing ground for the proposed BANA Guidelines for Transcription of Early Literacy Materials. Each transcriber connected with an agency should check with their agency to ascertain permission to apply these practices. We would encourage agencies to approve the use of these practices to enable a broader testing field. For up to date revisions of these practices visit the ATIC web page by going to www.aph.org. Click the ATIC banner and you will find the title Promising Practices for Transcription of Textbooks for Kindergarten, First, Second, and Third Grade listed. Questions or suggestions should be submitted to Betsy Burnham at [email protected] Please type Early Literacy in subject line.

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 2

    The following must appear on the Transcribers Note Page in each braille volume:

    This volume has been transcribed according to the provisional guidelines for Transcribing Early Literacy Materials (March 2007) set forth by the Braille Authority of North America (BANA) and the America printing House for the Blind (APH). A print copy of the special symbols and transcribers note page will be included with each volume in a section titled Teacher Reference Materials. This section contains a Special Symbols Page and a Transcriber's Note page. The Transcribers Note page of this section will be a print copy of the braille Transcribers Note page with the addition of all of the transcribers notes (tns) found in that volume. The print page number on which a tn appears will be listed followed by the actual tn.

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 3

    Underlying Principles to Consider When Transcribing Early Literacy Materials

    Transcribers must always consider that students who are blind or visually impaired gather information differently than the sighted students for whom the book being transcribed was designed. It is essential that a transcriber acknowledge that young children with normal vision gain knowledge and learn many things incidentally: i.e. by means of watching others and then mimicking the movements or activities they have observed. The child with a visual impairment needs direct teaching for those activities. The world of the child for whom we transcribe is experienced through direct touch, sound and/or smell and the formatting decisions the transcriber makes should reflect the learning style of the reader.

    Tactile Graphics Early literacy texts are very visual in nature. The transcriber must constantly ask himself/herself why a picture or graphic is present on a print page. The interpretation and reading of a tactile graphic is a skill that must be taught to a braille reader. Students in grades K-3 are developing skills to read tactile graphics and need assistance in interpreting the information being presented, depending on the complexity of the tactile graphic. Descriptions of graphics are very limited by the reading level of these books. At each elevation of grade level there can be fewer limitations. It is a very difficult task to decide which graphics to include, at the lower grade levels. The student must be introduced to tactile representation, but this must be done with assistance and in a progression from very basic to more complex. Further research and study are needed in this area in order to help establish the acceptable degree of complexity at a specific grade level.

  • Promising Practices

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    In the interim, the Early Literacy Materials Production committee (ELMP) has determined the omission of tactile graphics that require the student to name the object depicted in a picture or when drawing is necessary. Very basic shapes and very basic maps can be depicted in a tactile graphic for grades K-1 and more complex grids and maps can be included by grades 2 and 3. The transcribers note Ask or Ask your teacher for help is included before each graphic, as the student needs assistance to understand either the graphic or its purpose. We do not want to give the classroom teacher the impression that the student will understand what a tactile graphic represents, without assistance.

    Emphasis or Typeface Indicators The inclusion of emphasis symbols (italics, bold, underlining) is still under research. It is particularly important when first learning to read that the shape or look of a word remain consistent. To precede a word with a braille emphasis indicator changes the shape of the word, making the word less familiar and recognizable. Until the research is complete, and a final recommendation made, the committee has given a gradual introduction of these symbols by grade level. When such symbols are used they need to be included on the Special Symbols page. The teacher must teach the symbols themselves and relay what italicized, bold-faced type and underscoring are, or mean, when found within text.

    Teachers Reference Materials One of the more unique features suggested in this document is the inclusion of Teachers Reference Materials. These are print pages that contain information found on the Special Symbols and Transcribers Note pages of the braille volume. A listing by print page number of each instance of the transcribers notes Ask or Ask your teacher for assistance is given. On a new line the reason for that note is given: i.e. activity omittedverbal description or alternate activity needed; graphic omittedmodel or verbal description needed; or graphic includedassistance may be needed, is included.

  • Promising Practices

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    The purpose of this information is to allow the VI teacher to plan the instruction of a special symbol, the preparation of an alternate activity or verbal description, the gathering of models that may be needed, or when his or her presence is necessary for assistance.

    Note for Tactile Graphics Some diagrams, maps, and/or graphs are presented as tactile

    graphics. Students in grades K-3 are developing skills to read tactile graphics and may need assistance in interpreting the information being presented.

    Note for Omitted Pictures to be Named. Throughout the volume there are several pages containing

    pictures for the student to identify by name. Most braille readers at this grade level are not able to identify two-dimensional drawings as objects. These pictures are omitted. It is suggested the actual item, model or a verbal description be given to the student.

    Note for Workbook Not Being Brailled as Consumable Most of the directions within this book are not appropriate for

    the braille reader, as he/she will not be writing in this book. The directions are brailled as they appear in print. Therefore, the braille reader will need adapted directions from the VI teacher or paraprofessional.

  • Promising Practices

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    The ELMP committee obviously cannot supply examples of every format or activity that a transcriber may come upon. However, we do feel that with the examples and guidelines given and the consideration of the underlying principles, better decisions can be made by transcribers. BANA Ad-Hoc Committee for Early Literacy Materials Production Members: Betsy Burnham-chair 2003- Susan Christensen 2003- Jeri Cleveland 2003-2006 Marcia Nigro Dresser 2003-2006 Warren Figueiredo 2003- Ann Kelt 2003- Ann MacCuspie 2003- Edie Mourre 2003-2006 Mila Truan, Ed.D. 2003-2006 Lynn Vuocolo 2003-2006 All items followed by an asterisk (*) are changes to this document since the last posting.

  • Promising Practices

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    Physical Page Attributes: Size

    Kindergarten, First and Second Grades: 11" x 11" (40 cells across, 25 lines down) 50 pieces of braille paper

    Third Grade and all Math: 11" x 11 " (40 cells across, 25 lines down) 70 pieces of braille paper

    Embossing All Grades: Interpoint or single-sided. (Agency decision)

    Spacing

    All Grades: Words should not be divided. Kindergarten and First Grade:

    Double-spaced (results in 10 braille lines per page) Never more than 1 blank line between lines (this

    includes headings). Single space Title page* Single-space for puzzles Single-space spatial problems in math textbooks Single-space all Keys*

    Second and Third Grades:

    Single-space

  • Promising Practices

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    Formatting: Follow rules set forth in Braille Formats: Principles of Print to

    Braille Transcription, unless specified below. There are to be no transcribers notes in kindergarten books except the following, which is to be placed at the left margin.

    Kindergarten (at left margin): IDI^phQID=

    The transcriber's note is expanded for grades 1-2 and is placed in cells 7 with runovers in cell 5 (7-5). Frequently the need for keys before tactile graphics and some tables will need to be included. The placement for keys should reflect the guidelines found in Braille Formats: Principles of Print to Braille Transcription. Preceded by the "Ask" tn.

    FirstSecond Grades (7-5): ======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQID=

    Third Grade In third grade the reason for the need for help may be added, this would also include a key for a graphic. The reasons must be written in the same language and grade level as the textbook itself.

    IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=I>=^`qfsXv===fp=ljfqqA=lo=^=q^`qfib=do^mef`=cliixpQID=

  • Promising Practices

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    SAMPLE PAGE

    Teacher Reference Materials

    Special Symbols Used in This Volume K== Dot 4, 6 italicized typeface indicator |K Dots 456, 46 bold typeface indicator |_==Dots 456, 12 blue typeface indicator |o= Dots 456 1235 red typeface indicator |d= Dots 456, 1245 green typeface indicator ID= Dots 6, 3 Transcriber's note symbol ID= Dots 6, 3 Termination symbol

    Transcribers Note Page This volume has been transcribed according to the provisional

    guidelines for Transcribing Early Literacy Materials (August 2007) set forth by BANA and the America printing House for the Blind.

    A listing of the words containing part-word typeface emphasis appears prior to those chapters or sections in which part-word typeface emphasis is used.

    There are no proofreading marks in braille. Draft (original) sentences are brailled first under the heading "Draft'. The line numbers, with each paragraph beginning with line 1, are listed and followed by the changes to be made.

    Page 14 Ask.

    The pictures are omitted. A verbal description is needed.

    Page 15 Ask your teacher for help. Pictures are omitted.

    A verbal description is needed.

    Page 16 Ask.

    The writing activity is omitted. An alternate activity is needed.

  • Promising Practices

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    Page 18 Ask.

    The pictures are omitted. A verbal description is needed.

    Page 21 Ask.

    The pictures are omitted. A verbal description is needed.

    Page 22 Ask.

    The lines depicting the word shape are omitted.

    Page 23 Ask your teacher for help. The shapes are omitted.

    Page 25 Ask.

    The pictures are omitted. A verbal description or model of the object is needed.

    Page 26 Ask.

    A verbal description or model of each object is needed.

    Page 26 Ask your teacher for help. The pictures are omitted.

    A verbal description or model of each object is needed.

    Page 30 Ask your teacher for help. The pictures are omitted.

    The pictures are omitted. Alternate instructions or activity are needed.

    Page 36 Ask your teacher for help.

    The shapes are omitted. The words are listed.

  • Promising Practices

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    Page 39 Ask your teacher for help.

    As there are no proofreading symbols in braille the student may need assistance with the line number format used.

  • Promising Practices

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    Formatting (cont.): Name and Date*

    Frequently, at these grade levels, the words Name and Date followed by an area to be filled in appear at the top of print pages. Often, print books with this format are not brailled as expendable or consumable material. The inclusion of this format is to be considered a teaching method for emphasizing the need for ones name and date to appear on every page handed in to the teacher. Therefore, the words Name and Date are to be included in the transcriptions of these books for grades K-3, blocked in cell 1.

    Activities to Omit :

    All omissions are to be stated on a print Teacher Reference Materials (see Sample of Teacher Reference Materials).

    Kindergarten-Third Grade: Activities requiring visual discrimination (see

    Example 1)

  • Promising Practices

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    Example 1 Sample Visual Discrimination Activity

  • Promising Practices

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    Example 1 (cont)=

    =Kindergarten IcliixH=Imf`qrob=Iafob`Xkp====I?p?qp={tp=[b=k=kbAA=Sdfsb=afob`XkpQ===I^=mf`qrob=lo=pvj_li=`=ibq=v=?h=W^q=SaQ===I`lilop=`=^i=O=rpAQ=Iillh=^q={>===bu^jmibpQ=IW^q=albp=b^G=mf`qrob=jNkU==IDI^phQID====I^=pbq=E=mf`qrobp=`=Bx=v=ex=Sa=lo=j^hb===?p\HQ=Ib^G=mf`qrob=Bxp=v=?l=LbmQ======Iqov=Iu=Iqdo====Iq^ih=^_={>=mf`qrob=afob`Xkp=F=vo===`i^ppQ=IW^q=a=>v=Bx=v=ex=Sj^hbU=IW^q=a=v==kbA=Sj^hb=uU=IW^q=abq^fip=a=v=klqf`b=V===b^G=mf`qrobU=I?t=F^=`i^ppj^qb=Scliix=>===afob`XkpQ==IDI^phQID==

  • Promising Practices

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    First and Second Grade* Retain the double-spacing for first grade, change to single-

    spacing for second grade. For both grades expand the transcribers note to the following:

    ======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQID=

    Third Grade* ======== =IcliixH=Imf`qrob=Iafob`Xkp=====I?p?qp={tp=[b=k=kbAA=Sdfsb=afob`XkpQ==I^=mf`qrob=lo=pvj_li=`=ibq=v=?h=W^q=SaQ=I`lilop=`=^i=O=rpAQ=Iillh=^q={>==bu^jmibpQ=IW^q=albp=b^G=mf`qrob=jNkU=======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=Imf`qrobp======[b=ljfqqAQID===I^=pbq=E=mf`qrobp=`=Bx=v=ex=Sa=lo=j^hb=?p\HQ=Ib^G=mf`qrob=Bxp=v=?l=LbmQ======Iqov=Iu=Iqdo===Iq^ih=^_={>=mf`qrob=afob`Xkp=F=vo==`i^ppQ=IW^q=a=>v=Bx=v=ex=Sj^hbU=IW^q=a=v=kbA=Sj^hb=uU=IW^q=abq^fip=a=v=klqf`b=V==b^G=mf`qrobU=I?t=F^=`i^ppj^qb=Scliix=>=afob`XkpQ=======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=Imf`qrobp======[b=ljfqqAQID

  • Promising Practices

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    Formatting (cont.): Activities to Omit (cont.) :

    Handwriting activities (see Example 2)

    Example 2 Sample Handwriting Activities

    Kindergarten IDI^phQID=

    First and Second Grades* ======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=

    Third Grade* ======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=I>=tofqH==========^`qfsXv=fp=ljfqqAQID==

  • Promising Practices

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    Formatting (cont.): Activities to Omit (cont.):

    Letter recognition activities Modifications of the standard alphabet (no braille

    equivalents) (see Example 3)

    Example 3 Sample Modifications of the Standard Alphabet

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 18

    Kindergarten =====Ijlpbp=mi^vp=lk=U=kbt=aorjQ===============Ieb=`Dq=eb[=>=pKap=eb=fp=j^hH=O`=eb=fp===aNcN=_=eb=cbbip=>=sf_oIk=E>=aorj=?\=U===

    eCpQ=Ieb=e^p=q^hR=Ec=U=Blbp=p=eb=`=cbbi===u=?\=U=cbbqN=qllQ==IDI^phQID=

    First Grade* To be transcribed double-spaced with expanded transcriber's note and inclusion of the picture caption. IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=

    ============I`^mIkP=If=mi^v=>=aorj==

    Second Grade*

    Ijlpbp=mi^vp=lk=U=kbt=aorjQ==============Ieb=`Dq=eb[=>=pKap=eb=fp=j^hH=O`=eb=fp=aNcN=_=eb=cbbip=>=sf_oIk=E>=aorj=?\=U=eCpQ=Ieb=e^p=q^hR=Ec=U=Blbp=p=eb=`=cbbi==u=?\=U=cbbqN=qllQ=======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQID========I`^mIkP=If=mi^v=>=aorj==

    Third Grade To be transcribed the same as the transcription for second grade with addition to transcriber's note. =============IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=Imf`qrob=fp=====ljfqqAQID=

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 19

  • Promising Practices

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    Formatting (cont.): Activities to Omit (cont.):

    Stories told exclusively with pictures (see Example

    4)

    Example 4 Sample Stories Told Exclusively with Pictures

  • Promising Practices

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    Example 4 (cont)

    Kindergarten ====I\Vh=C=IQ`rpp==IDI^phQID==IW^q=[b=>=cold=C=o^Ofq=i=V=\=cL=pbq=E==mf`qrobpU=IW^q=[b=>v=i=V=>=pb`lka=pbqU===Iex=a=>=mf`qrobp=G^kdb=vo=faNp=^_=>===pbqqH=C>=?Gp=V=>=Llov=vo=qNGz=oNaU=

    First and Second Grades* Retain the double-spacing for first grade, change to single-

    spacing for second grade. For both grades expand the transcribers note to the following: =======

    ======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQID=

    Third Grade =

    ====I\Vh=C=IQ`rpp=======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=I>=mf`qrobp=====[b=ljfqqAQID=IW^q=[b=>=cold=C=o^Ofq=i=V=\=cL=pbq=E==mf`qrobpU=IW^q=[b=>v=i=V=>=pb`lka=pbqU==Iex=a=>=mf`qrobp=G^kdb=vo=faNp=^_=>==pbqqH=C>=?Gp=V=>=Llov=vo=qNGz=oNaU

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 22

    Formatting (cont.): Activities to Omit (cont.) :

    Activities requiring the drawing of shape configurations to identify words (i.e. puzzle shapes, circles, squares, triangles. (see Example 5)

    Example 5 Sample Drawing Activities

    First Grade: ====Ij^qG=>=IB^mb=Itofqb=>=pmbiiH={t=q=J======mibqbp=>=pRqXb=C=j^qGbp=>=B^mbQ= ============IDI^[email protected]=Itb=|e=St^fq=V=iVb=Z^[email protected]=IG^kd=^qb=^=aorjLf`hN=C=Ip^j=^qb=^=====JJJJQ=

  • Promising Practices

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    Example 5 (cont.)

    Second Grade* Transcribe as shown for first grade with single-spacing.

    Third Grade = KKIj^qG=>=KIB^mb==Itofqb=>=pmbiiH={t=q=Jmibqbp=>=pRqXb=C=j^qGbp=>=B^mbQ========IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=I>=B^mbp=[[email protected]=Itb=|e=St^fq=V=iVb=Z^[email protected]=IG^kd=^qb=^=aorjLf`hN=C=Ip^j=^qb=^====JJJJQ=

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 24

    Formatting (cont.): Activities to Omit (cont.):

    Activities requiring matching pictures to words or sentences (see Example 6)

    Example 6 Sample Matching Activity

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 25

    Example 6 (cont)

    Kindergarten =====

    ====IoNa=>={tp=V=b^G=_luQ=Iao^t=^=iVb=c=======>=`loob`q={t=S>=mf`qrobQ==IDI^phQID==gbq===grd==ord===ofd==_rd===_^d==j^q===jrd==krq===k===efq===erq==erd===eld==`rq===`^q

    First and Second Grades Retain the double-spacing for first grade, change to single-

    spacing for second grade. For both grades expand the transcribers note to the following:

    =======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQID=

  • Promising Practices

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    Example 6 (cont)

    Third Grade ====

    ====IoNa=>={tp=V=b^G=_luQ=Iao^t=^=iVb=c=>========`loob`q={t=S>=mf`qrobQ=======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=I>=mf`qrobp======[b=ljfqqAQID==gbq===grd=ord===ofd=_rd===_^d=j^q===jrd=krq===k==efq===erq=erd===eld=`rq===`^q=

    Formatting (cont.): Activities to Omit (cont.):

    = Dot-to-Dot puzzles

    Emphasis Kindergarten:

    Omit all emphasis Omissions are to be stated on the print Teacher

    Reference Materials page(s). First Grade:

    Use only dots 46 for emphasis (place this indicator on the special symbols page).

    SecondThird Grades (only):

    Dots 46 for most emphasis (place this indicator on the special symbols page.)

    Sentences requiring more than one distinctive emphasis (italics, bold, underlined, color) should be written twice. First, before the activity, place the tn Ask your teacher for help." Write the sentence margins 1-5, with no emphasis shown. Then repeat

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 27

    the sentence, margins 3-7, showing all distinctive emphasis as indicated by Braille Formats.

    Example: ======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQID=

    She fixes dinner. IBb=cfubp=aVkzQ=

    ==IBb=Kcfubp=|KaVkzQ=

    Emphasis (cont.)

    Second and Third Grades only: Highlighted or colored words are to be indicated by

    color indicators (these indicators are to be on the Special Symbols Pageprint and braille). See Braille Formats Rule 3 Section 2c for a listing of color indicators.

    the color indicator appears prior to the word followed by a space.

    the termination symbol is placed after the word effected, and is preceded by a blank space.

    these symbols may be on a line with words effected by the color.

    Example: Some stories, like the one you just heard, have only words. When you read or hear them, you must create pictures of the characters and places in your mind. =

    ==I?p=LlofbpN=i=>=?l=v=g=|_=eb[aN=ID=e=lkiv={tpQ=IWR=v=|o=oNa=lo=eb[=>jN=v======jL=ID=`oNqb=mf`qrobp=E>=|d=?Gp=C======mi^`bp=ID=V=vo=jVaQ=

    =

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 28

    Part-Word Emphasis Kindergarten and First Grade:

    All emphasis is omitted A transcribers note of explanation is to be written

    on the Teacher's Reference Page regarding the omission of part-word emphasis.

    In cases where the student may be referred to the letters emphasized a transcribers note should be written in the student copy. Example:

    Kindergarten (at left margin): IDI^phQID=

    First Grade: (7-5): ======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQID=

    Second and Third Grades:

    A note should appear within the Teachers Reference pages explaining the format used.=

    Prior to the paragraph, sentence etc. containing part-word emphasis write a transcribers note

    Follow the provisions given in Rule 3 Section 4c of Braille Formats. *

    Photographs with captions:

    Kindergarten: omit Place a note on the Teacher's Reference Page

    stating the omission of all pictures and captions. If text asks questions about the photograph (see

    Example 7) write the following transcribers note:

    ==========IDI^phQID=

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 29

    Formatting (cont.): Photographs with captions (cont.):

    First-Third Grade: Do not describe the photograph. If there is a caption braille the caption preceded by

    the word Picture: (see last line of Example 3) If text asks questions about the photograph (see

    Example 7).

    Example 7 Sample Pictures to Omit

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 30

    Example 7 (cont)

    First and Second Grades:* Same as below with the following exceptions: Double-spacing for first grade. Single-spacing for second grade. Delete "The pictures are omitted" from the tn.

    Third Grade ====IqovH=>=Iphfii=======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=I>=mf`qrobp=============[b=ljfqqAQID===I{>=mf`qrobp=Bx=qtl=eypbp=?W=Iol_zqDp=rk`ib=ifsAQ=I>=qlm=mf`qrob=Bxp=>=cL=eypb=eb=ifsA=fkQ=I>=_lqqlj=mf`qrob=Bxp=>=eypb=Iol_zqDp=rk`ib=ifsbp=V=qaQ=

    =

    @^Q=Iqbii=ex=>=mf`qrobp=E>=eypbp=[b=====^[email protected]_Q=Iqbii=ex=>v=[[email protected]`Q=I\Vh=^_=>=olljp=V=vo=pGlliQ=Iex=[b====>v=^ifhbU=Iex=[b=>v=afSzRqU=

    =

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 31

    Formatting (cont.): Draw instructions

    Kindergarten Omit Activity (insert "Ask." transcriber's note).

    First-Third Grades: Leave text as is (see Example 8). Insert the

    transcriber's note. "Ask your teacher for help."

    Example 8 Sample Draw Instruction Activity

  • Promising Practices

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    Example 8 (cont) First and Second Grades:* Same as below with the following exceptions.

    Double-space first grade. Single-space second grade. Delete "The pictures are omitted" from the tn.

    Third Grade=====

    ====Ibumilob=Ivo=Iqlmf`=======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=I>=mf`qrobp======[[email protected]^=KI\Vh=^_=vo=qlmf`Q=Imf`qrob=>[email protected]_=KIao^t=mf`qrobp=E>=LbmpQ=Itofqb=^=cbt===={tp=^_=>=mf`qrobpQ==============Imf`qrobP=Iaobpp=pkxj^kQ=======Imf`qrobP=IL^`h=pkx_^iipQ=======Imf`qrobP=I^aa=[jp=C=c^`bQ=======Imf`qrobP=Ij^hb=_^[email protected]`=KIrpb=Kvo=Kmf`qrobp=Sbumi^V=b^G=Lbm====S^=?mkzQ=Ialbp=vo=?mkz=e=^kv=?npU==

    ======Ipbb=m^[email protected]^a=Z=l>o=faNp=Z=bumiloH=======vo=qlmf`Q

  • Promising Practices

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    Formatting (cont.): Puzzles

    Kindergarten, First and Second Grades: Precede each puzzle with the transcriber's note "Ask." at the

    left margin (Kindergarten) or Ask your teacher for help--7-5 (First and Second Grade). On the Teacher's Reference Page include a note regarding the omission of, or the format for, each type of puzzle in that volume.

    Jigsawlist the words Crosswordomit Configuration boxestreat as fill in the blank. DO

    NOT draw shapes (see Example 5). Word Searchsingle spacing, no letter signs Dot-to-Dotomit Puzzle shapes for building vocabulary can be

    handled by listing the vocabulary words (see Example 9).

    The Teacher's Reference page should indicate that the student may need help in tracking any columns.

    Third Grade:

    Precede each puzzle with a transcriber's note explaining the format for each type of puzzle in that volume.

    Jigsawlist the words Crosswordfollow Braille Formats Rule 16

    Sections 2 Configuration boxestreat as fill in the blank. DO

    NOT draw shapes (see Example 5). Word Searchsingle spacing, no letter signs Dot-to-Dotomit Puzzle shapes for building vocabulary can be

    handled by listing the vocabulary words (see Example 9).

    The Teacher's Reference page should indicate that the student may need help in tracking any columns.

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 34

    Example 9 Sample of Puzzle Shapes for Building Vocabulary

    =

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 35

    Example 9 (cont)

    Kindergarten

    ====Imrwwib=Icrk=======IcVa=>=B^mbp=F={tp=q=Bx=xkzBfmQ======I`lilo=>j=lo^kdbQ=I>k=Jmibqb=>=======pRqXbp=OiQ==IDI^phQID==V====O====jv===Bb==>====ez==eb===jb==vo===U====yo===|>==up===q^ii==eb===u==Byq==^qb===

    First and Second Grades* Retain the double-spacing for first grade, change to single-spacing for second grade. For both grades expand the transcribers note to the following: =======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQID

  • Promising Practices

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    Third Grade

    ====Imrwwib=Icrk= =====IcVa=>=B^mbp=F={tp=q=Bx=xkzBfmQ=========I`lilo=>j=lo^kdbQ=I>k=Jmibqb=>======pRqXbp=OiQ=======IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ=I>=mrwwib======fp=ljfqqAQ=I>={tp=[b=ifLA=Oi=V=qtl=======`lirjkpQID=

    =

    V====O=jv===Bb=>====ez=eb===jb=vo===U=yo===|>=up===q^ii=eb===u=Byq==^qb==

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 37

    Formatting (cont.): Footnotes

    Kindergarten-First: Omit. The Teacher's Reference Page should

    contain a note explaining that all footnotes are omitted.

    Second-Third Grade: Place braille reference and/or note indicator at the

    point of reference. Place braille reference and/or note indicator

    immediately below the paragraph in which the reference occurs.

    The braille reference indicator, margin 7-5 precedes the footnote. Reference indicators should be listed on the Special Symbols page.

    Multiple-Column Lists (see Example 9):

    Kindergarten and First Grade: No more than two columns across A transcriber's note "Ask."(kindergarten) or "Ask

    your teacher for help." (First Grade) should appear in the braille copy prior to the columns.

    The Teacher's Reference page should indicate that the student may need help in tracking the two columns.

    Second and Third Grades:

    No more than 4 columns

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 38

    Formatting (cont.): Proofreading Marks

    Kindergarten and First Grades: Omit. A transcriber's note, "Ask." or "Ask your teacher for

    help." should appear in the braille copy. The Teacher's Reference page should indicate that

    there are no braille symbols for proofreading or editing marks. The teacher should give the student instructions in the line-number method or the method she/he prefers.

    Second and Third Grades:

    Use the line-number method (see Example 10). The following transcriber's note for the braille and

    the Teacher's Reference Page is suggested. There are no proofreading marks in braille. Draft

    (original) sentences are brailled first, under the heading "Draft'. The line numbers, with each paragraph beginning with line 1, are listed and followed by the changes to be made.

    Example 10

    Samples of Line-Number Method for Proofreading/Editing Symbols

    ===

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 39

    Example 10 (cont.)

    Second and Third Grades IDI^ph=vo=qNGz=Z=ebimQ======Iao^cq=

    ==KIf=KM=^k=bic=V=^=Bx=^q=prjjz=`^jmQ=KIf=KM=prmmlpA=SpkNh=VS>=Blbj^hzDp=BlmQ=

    [email protected]^P====IabibqbP=M=====Iobmi^`b=FP=mi^[email protected]_P====IabibqbP=M=prmmlpA=SpkNh=====Iobmi^`b=FP=pkNhA=

    =

    ====I`loob`qA=

    ==If=mi^vA=^k=bic=V=^=Bx=^q=prjjz=`^jmQ=If=pkNhA=VS>=Blbj^hzDp=BlmQ=

  • Promising Practices

    08/07 40

    Formatting (cont.): Other:

    Dictionary and Thesaurus format will allow more than one sub-entry level (1/5, 3/7, 5/9) (Currently the rules state levels 1/3 or 1/5, 3/5.) Additional levels will enable the use of further subentries for sample sentence or emphasized items (see Example 11).

    Example 11 Sample Thesaurus

    Second and Third Grades ^`qfsb==^agQ=jlsH=^_O=_rpvQ======Ieb=kbAA=^=obL=^c=U=K^`qfsb=?aQ===Rzdbqf`==crii=E=LoRd\=C=mbmQ========Ijv=KRzdbqf`=^rkq=buz`fpbp=EqRQ===ifsbiv==crii=E=ifcb=C=GbzQ========I>=Kifsbiv=jrpf`=hbmq=r=a^k`HQ===^kqlkvjpP=i^wvN=pix===================XI_=DDD=