psychology : investigating behaviour 1 research methods investigating behaviour

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Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 1 Research Methods Investigating Behaviour Slide 2 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 2 What will l be doing in this unit? Slide 3 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 3 The Research Process Is Psychology common sense? - As humans we have a desire to predict behaviour we are in essence amateur psychologists. But is psychology as simple as that? - Well, the thing that makes psychology more than just common sense is that its assumptions are scientific and a result of research based testing. - It uses scientific research methods to establish whether theories are supported or not. Slide 4 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 4 Student Activity In groups of 2-3 consider the following questions. 1. What are common sense explanations of behaviour give 2 examples. 2. Why do psychologists consider their explanations to be testable and scientific? http://www.longroad.ac.uk/accreditation/subject _psychology/investigations/booklet 1.pdf Slide 5 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 5 So what are Research Methods? Research Methods include all aspects of the research process, from planning, through to implementation and on to the reporting of the findings. Slide 6 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 6 The Four step research process Psychologists use a four step process to carry out a piece of research: Form a hypothesis a hypothesis is the research question or the idea they wish to study i.e. are women better drivers than men. Design research study to test hypothesis and collect the data How am l going to go about and answer this question, how am l going to collect the data, which method? Analyse results to confirm or refute hypothesis. Modify theoretical concepts or revise hypothesis and conduct further research. Slide 7 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 7 Form Hypothesis Design research study Design research study what methods can l use? Design research study Design research study what methods can l use? Analyse results to confirm hypothesis Analyse results to confirm hypothesis Implications for further research further research Implications for further research further research Diagram of four step research process Slide 8 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 8 Key terms in research Aims Aim of study is to answer research question. - For example Does alcohol affect driving ability? Hypothesis A statement which the experimenter expects to occur. This should be tested and can be supported or rejected. - Alcohol does affect driving ability. Slide 9 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 9 Key Terms Cont. There are two types of hypothesis : - Experimental (or alternate or research) hypothesis, so you would predict that if you give alcohol to a driver this will affect their driving ability ie one variable affects another. - Null hypothesis is when one variable does not affect the other ie alcohol did not affect driving another variable did, examples may include lack of sleep, hunger, type of car used etc. Slide 10 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 10 In summary So for our experiment : Alcohol affects driving ability, we would use the following two hypothesis: Experimental Hypothesis Alcohol does affect driving ability. Null Hypothesis Alcohol does not affect driving ability. Slide 11 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 11 Quantative and Qualitative Research There are two methods used by psychologists in collecting and analysing data: - Quantative most often used in experiments, observations and surveys. This is used to look at how often, how much, how long behaviour occurs. Results are generally numerical and in graphs and charts. Slide 12 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 12 Quantative and Qualitative Research - Qualitative data is usually the result of interviews and case studies. Here the information gathered is detailed and descriptive. Usually the data cannot be charted in graphs but instead in sentence form. Here you are explaining the why to certain behaviours. Slide 13 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 13 Examples of Quantative and Qualitative data in literature Qualitative Rawlins, R (1979) Forty Years of Rhesus Research - The Colony of Monkeys. New Scientist, 82, 108-10. Quantative Holmes, TH & Rahe, RH (1967) The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic research, 11, 213-18. Slide 14 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 14 Closed and open questioning Closed questions Questions that provide alternatives for participants to choose from for example multiple choice, yes or no, true or false questions. Answers do not lead on to further analysis, they are objective, unambiguous and reliable. Open questions Allow for a wide range of responses, they are not constrained by options given instead in-depth responses given. Answers can be ambiguous and subjective. Slide 15 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 15 Reliability and Validity Reliability The extend to which the same method produces the same results each time it is used. It is the assurance of consistency and credibility. A test is reliable if if its stable over time and distance ie it produces the same results on the same people each time it is used in a day, week, month etc. Validity Establishes that a measure is measuring exactly what you expect it to measure ie an IQ test should test intelligence not memory. Slide 16 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 16 Variables Something open to change. Independent Variable the experimenter can manipulate or control Dependent Response being measured Extraneous Any variable, other than the IV that may effect DV. The researcher should try to minimise their influence. Slide 17 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 17 An example : Hypothesis: Background noise will have an effect on short term memory performance IV : Background noise can be under two conditions: Condition 1 : no loud music (control group) Condition 2 : loud classical music (experimental group) Thus the researcher can manipulate experiment under the two conditions. DV : Short term memory performance Extraneous variables : is participant drowsy, what have they had to eat etc. These factors too can affect short term memory thus it is important to control these factors as much as possible. Slide 18 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 18 Sampling Methods Control and experimental groups The control group is the group who have not been exposed to the manipulation of the IV. So in the example the control group would not have loud music playing while they complete their short term memory task. The experimental group however do have the music playing whilst completing their task. Slide 19 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 19 Sampling methods Psychologists generally want their conclusions to apply to members of a particular population ie all 5 year old girls, Scottish voters, obese teens etc. But they cannot study all members of this group thus they select a sample of this population. Their sample should be an accurate representation of the entire population. So the sample must be representative of the population and each subject must be randomly chosen. Slide 20 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 20 Methods of collecting data Experiment and Non experiment Experiment - Most controlled form of study and the only form where you can show that one variable causes another. - Here you are looking at the cause (IV) and effect (DV) relationship. Slide 21 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 21 Types of Experiment Lab -Completely controlled environment, where variables are monitored and controlled. Replication is a key factor and ethical guidelines is a must. Field - Study takes place in more everyday surrounding i.e. school, street etc. IV is manipulated but outside extraneous variables may come into play due to lack of control. Natural - Occurs when researcher exploits a natural event that is about to occur and takes the form of an experimental situation. For example, a volcano, authorities relaxing visiting times at a hospital etc. What effect do these changes have. Slide 22 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 22 Demand Characteristics A term that is used to describe the process that occurs when people know or think they know what the experiment is about or what the experimenter is looking for. When this happens in experiments it can affect the way people behave. Also the experimenter may effect the experiment depending on how they interact with the participants, thus experimenters should used standardised instructions in what to do and say to participants. Slide 23 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 23 Non experimental Methods As you know an experiment is a procedure whereby a researcher systematically varies one or more factors in order to see what effects the changes have on behaviour. Non experimental methods do not involve direct control of any factor (no IV or DV).They simply describe what is happening. For example, noting an individuals co ordination before and after they visit a bar would not tell us anything about how alcohol affects co ordination, but would give us data concerning the changes in co ordination and other characteristics. Slide 24 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 24 Surveys Umbrella term for a variety of methods that involve asking questions. Based on self report, participants are asked what they think, feel, views, options, experiences etc. This is in contrast to experiments whereby the behaviour of an individual is observed and then inferences are made about underlying thoughts, feelings and attitudes. Can consist of questionnaires or surveys. Slide 25 Psychology : Investigating Behaviour 25 Questionnaires Questionnaires are sets of questions that can be answered in person or in writing. Generally they can be highly structured, consisting of predetermined questions with a limited choice of answers to tick. Can also include open questions for participants to express their opinions and provide feedback. Used i