qms dairy in nepal-db khadka

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Quality Management System (QMS) in Dairy Industries in NepalBy Dambar B. Khadka KaHo Sint Lieven Gent, Belgium

General Outline Introduction Historical background Current status of milk Production & Consumption Dairy Development Policy Dairy Industries and Its potential in Nepal Quality Issues and Importance of QMS in Dairy sector in Nepal QMS in Nepalese Dairy and Supports Mandatory Regulation Voluntary Regulation QMS in Dairy: Future Prospective & Recommendation Conclusion5/31/2012


IntroductionHistorical Background

Dairy development started with establishment of yak cheese Factory in Rasuwa in 1952 Establishment of Dairy development Commission in 1961, later converted to DDB In 1962 by GoN In 1969, DDB Converted to DDC by GoN Expanding of DDC in different region of country Establishment of NDDB under ten year plan (1991-2000) Initiation of private dairy industries5/31/2012

Source FAO-N, 2010


Current status; Milk production and Consumption Annual milk production of Nepal : 1388,730 MT 70% supply from Buffalo milk & 30 % Cow Milk2001) (Goeleti, et al.,

Dairy sector contribution (6% of National GDP) Per capita consumption:49 litre Common Dairy Product: milk (plastic pouches), Dahi (yoghurt like product), Ghee (clarified butter), paneer (soft cheese), Icecream and numerous traditional products5/31/2012


Dairy Industry & its Potential Most of dairy industry are small and medium scale DDC is the largest one (state owned, 200 Mt/day) Annual market growth for dairy products is around 1011 percent (FAO-N, 2010) Milk availability per day is higher than processing capacity (only 70% is utilized/day) (Upadhyay, 2001) Milk holiday a major problem to farmer Even though import of SMP, condensed milk is high Opportunity of the strengthen capacity and product diversification5/31/2012


Dairy Development Policy (DDP) Issued by GoN in 2008 To develop national economy by commercially, qualitatively and competitively developing the dairy sector for contributing employment generation and poverty reduction with the participation of government, cooperative and private sector to extend the efforts and programmes to make milk and dairy products easily available to the consumers (MoAC, 2008). Major Objective: Increasing milk production and productivity in rural areas Expanding milk collection, transportation arrangement and processing industries. Substituting import and increase the quality through product diversification to make it exportable commodities Upgrading and Regulating milk and milk products quality to supply quality product to consumer.5/31/2012


Agencies Concerned with DDPorganization Responsibilities MoAC Policy formulation, monitoring and evaluation, and facilitation MoF Arrangement for exemption of tax, custom duty and other concessions NDDB Study, policy formulation and amendment, monitoring and evaluation of policy implementation NARC Dairy product diversification, research and extension of low cost milk production technology, study and research on reducing fluctuation in milk production during flush and lean season DLS Necessary technical service for quality milk production, animal feed and animal disease control, training and management and programmes for reducing milk production cost DFTQC Quality amendment, fixation, quality monitoring and direction5/31/2012

Source: MoAC, 2008


Agencies Concerned with DDP contd...DoC MoICS ADB Development and extension of dairy cooperatives, monitoring and evaluation Facilitation on establishment of dairy industries and import and export of milk and dairy products and machine and equipment Arrangements of credits facility for milk producer, farmer and dairy industries Extension of dairy business and quality dairy product diversification Development, expansion and strengthening of dairy cooperatives, dairy processing factories Problem identification expansion of dairy business and quality dairy products diversification, implementation and monitoring of code of practice in the dairy industries Amendment of cooperative policy, strengthening of dairy cooperatives and establishment and cooperation of cooperative dairy processing factories 8 Source: MoAC, 2008




Quality Issue and Importance of QMSComplex Chain of Milk Supply Long travelling time and poor hygienic maintenance at farm and supply chain, and maintenance of cold chain is difficult FarmerMiddleman/ Vendor Milk collection centreMilk Chilling centre Milk Processing Plant Retailer Consumer5/31/2012

Dairy Cooperatives

Source: FAO-N, 2010


Quality Issue and Importance of QMS Mixed farming, mainly small household farming system Lack of hygiene in farmer limited knowledge about hygiene and quality High adulteration practice for profit High Sub-standard products in Market (30%), major problem is hygienic contamination (DFTQC, 2007) Improper processing facilities and less skill personnel Post contamination more frequent Limited realization about quality and quality management. Consumer have to boil milk even if they are coming from pasteurised plant.



Existing QM and support Mandatory Regulation Food Act 1967 & Regulation 1970 controlling and regulating Food Quality through sampling and inspection and penalty to sub-standards Minimisation of misbranding and adulteration of marketed food Issues national standard of 17 milk and milk products DFTQC is responsible body Focus on end product testing rather than prevention and cure approach ( Karki, 2006)



Existing QM and support Voluntary standard and Regulation Code of practice Nepal standard & certification Mark ( NS) HACCP QMS and its Implication SPS & TBT Agreement



Code of practice to provide guideline to dairy producer and corresponding stakeholder for production and supply of quality milk and milk product in the entire milk supply chain

Provide guidelines based on GMP principles Clean milk production at farmer level Milk collection and chilling centre Environment of dairy industries/Factory Building for dairy industry or cooperatives Construction of the processing hall5/31/2012

Clean milk production at the farmer level Milk collection and chilling centre Environment of dairy industries/Factory Building for dairy industry or cooperatives Construction of the processing hall


Nepal Standard & Certification Is product specific standard NS mark on any product is the indication of third party guarantee licenses to use Nepal Standard Certification Mark (NS) under provision of Nepal Standards Certification Mark Act 1980 Issued by NBSM No dairy industry in Nepal has awarded by NS Certification till now5/31/2012


HACCP Systematic approach that could be applied by food industry in order to assure the food safety. Include proactive dimensions GVP, GHP, GMP as an prerequisite program Only DDC has been implemented HACCP a growing interest in private dairy industry



QMS Implementation & certification QMS like ISO 9001 & ISO:22000 in emerging interest in dairy sector after Nepal being WTO Member in 2004 (Kharel, 2006) Only DDC has been implemented ISO 2200:2005 Gradually become essential to other dairy Implementation problems in many dairies due to: Large number of small and medium scale industry Lack of supporting Unavailability of certification body in country Lack of professional and other difficulties Lack of awareness & realization5/31/2012


SPS and TBT Agreement Nepal as 147 member of WTO, Obligation to comply with SPS &TBT Agreement SPS: Necessary measure to prevent the hazard through international trade to protect Human , Plant & Animal TBT : Related to product or technical specifications, not to create unnecessary obstacles to trade.



SPS and TBT Agreement Main challenges to dairy sector Harmonization with Codex standard Require science based sufficient information for making standard for traditional milk product Free competition with Imported milk products Opportunity of export is limited due to internal weak standard and external high standard Lack of technical expert, finance and other resources18


Future Perspectives & RecommendationContinual improvement is necessary through PDCA CycleWeakness

Strength High potential to substitute import products Involvement of large population (65%, modern and integrated plants, important cash crops Increase demand , export future Potential to increase yak cheese and other traditional milk products Opportunity HACCP and ISO 9001 implementation, Maintaining cold chain from Farm to processing plant Product diversification e .g traditional products Code of practice implementation5/31/2012

Low productivity, Low investment by GoN, Low milk availability in Lean season Weak Food act & enforcement Limited implementation of GMP, HACCP and QMS Threat High milk production cost Lack of infrastructure not competitive in term of quality and price High Sub standard milk products in market Lack of standard especially traditional milk products


Future Perspectives & RecommendationFor long term sustainability and to withstand competitive market Realization of Quality as a techno-manegrial approach is necessary in dairy industry


Lunning, et al., 2006


conclusion Dairy is complex matrix, both quality assurance as well as QMS adoption is necessary Some big industry already adopted FSMS, but still challenge to small scale industry Realization of importance

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