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Quality & Quality Tools By Prof N D Sadaphal Assistant Professor Sanjivani College of Engineering, Kopargaon (Maharashtra State) 423601 Mechanical Engineering

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  • Quality & Quality Tools

    By Prof N D Sadaphal

    Assistant Professor

    Sanjivani College of Engineering, Kopargaon (Maharashtra State) 423601

    Mechanical Engineering

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    TE Mechanical Metrology & Quality Control

    Quality & Quality Tools



    Think about a product you bought. How can you define its quality?

    Quality has been defined in a number of ways. When viewed from a consumers perspective, it means meeting or exceeding customer expectations.


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    Dimensions of Quality

    1. Performance: Will the product/service do the intended job?

    2. Reliability: How often does the product/service fail?

    3. Durability: How long does the product/service last?

    4. Serviceability: How easy to repair the product / to solve the problems in service?


    Dimensions of Quality (Conti..)

    5. Aesthetics: What does the product/service look/smell/sound/feel like?

    6. Features: What does the product do/ service give?

    7. Perceived Quality: What is the reputation of the company or its products/services?

    8. Conformance to Standards: Is the product/service made exactly as the designer/standard



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    What is Quality?

    Definition of Quality: (by the quality gurus)

    1. Quality is fitness for use (comfort) _ _ _ Juran

    2. Quality is conformance to requirements_ _ _ Crosby

    3. Quality is a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability,

    at low cost and suited to the market_ _ _ Deming

    4. Quality as the totality of features and characteristics of a product

    or service that bear on its ability to satisfy given need.

    _ _ _ ASQC


    What is Quality?

    The degree to which a system, component, or process meets

    (1) specified requirements, and

    (2) customer or users needs or expectations IEEE

    The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs

    ISO 8402

    Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements ISO 9000:2000


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    Modern Importance of Quality Modern Importance of Quality 7

    The first job we have is to turn out quality merchandise that consumers will buy and keep on buying. If we produce it efficiently and economically, we will earn a profit.-

    William Cooper Procter.

    Quality in service industries, government, health care, and education.

    Current and future challenge: keep progress in quality management


    Statistical Quality Control

    Quality Assurance

    Quality Management

    Quality Characteristics Quality of Design- design which fulfils all requirement of Customer. (method of construction, material, safety, aesthetics/appearance, reliability etc)

    Quality of Conformance- degree/extent to which product conforms its specification and drawing. ability to maintain specified quality design.(i.e. control of good quality)

    Quality of Performance- how well manufactured product gives performance. (Quality design + Quality conformance) Availability- available things in product like life, maintainability and

    reliability. Customer Service- service after product has been delivered. e.g. equipment installation, operational training, repair service, replacement of defective component etc.


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    Cost of quality

    Conformance Non-Conformance

    Quality Costs

    Appraisal cost Prevention cost External failure cost

    Internal failure cost

    Cost Report


    Cost of quality

    Cost of quality = Cost of conformance + Cost of non-conformance

    Cost of conformance is the cost of providing products or

    services as per the required standards. This can be termed as good amount spent. (Prevention & Appraisal costs)

    Cost of non-conformance is the failure cost associated with a process not being operated to the requirements. This can be termed as unnecessary amount spent.( Internal & External failure costs)


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    Prevention Costs

    Quality planning costs costs of developing and

    implementing quality management program

    Product-design costs costs of designing products

    with quality characteristics Process costs costs expended to make

    sure productive process conforms to quality specifications

    Training costs costs of developing and

    putting on quality training programs for employees

    Information costs

    costs of acquiring and maintaining data related to quality, and development of reports on quality performance


    Activities associated with Prevention costs

    Market research Quality training programs. Contract review Design review Field trials Supplier evaluation Process capability review Design and manufacture of jigs and fixtures Preventive checks & maintenance


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    Examples of prevention Cost

    Equipment maintenance & repair

    Fixture design and fabrication


    Market analysis Procedure writing Safety reviews Quality training Salesperson evaluation

    and selection


    Appraisal Costs

    Inspection and testing costs of testing and inspecting materials, parts, and

    product at various stages and at the end of a process. Cost of Power & material required for testing.

    Test equipment costs costs of maintaining equipment used in testing quality

    characteristics of products (Calibration of instrument) Operator costs costs of time spent by operators to gather data for testing

    product quality, to make equipment adjustments to maintain quality, and to stop work to assess quality


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    Activities associated with Appraisal costs Proto type testing

    Incoming material inspection

    Process inspection/control

    Final inspection

    Laboratory testing / measurement

    Quality audits.



    Document checking

    Diagram checking

    Equipment calibration

    Final inspection

    In-process inspection

    Laboratory test

    Personnel testing

    Procedure testing

    Prototype inspection

    Receiving inspection

    Shipping inspection

    Examples of appraisal cost 16

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    Internal Failure Costs Scrap costs costs of poor-quality products

    that must be discarded. (fault of manufacturer/vendor)

    Rework/repair costs costs of fixing defective products

    to conform to quality specifications.

    Extra payment made to operator to obtain required level of quality.

    Process failure costs costs of determining why

    production process is producing poor-quality products.

    Process down-time costs costs of shutting down

    productive process to fix problem.

    Price-down grading costs costs of discounting poor-

    quality productsthat is, selling products as seconds.


    External Failure Costs

    Customer complaint costs costs of investigating and

    satisfactorily responding to a customer complaint resulting from a poor-quality product.

    Product return costs costs of handling and replacing poor-

    quality products returned by customer.

    Warranty claims costs costs of complying with product


    Product liability costs litigation costs resulting

    from customer injury.

    Lost sales costs costs incurred because

    customers are dissatisfied with poor quality products and do not make additional purchases.


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    1-10-100 Rule















    Correction/ appraisal (inspection/testing)



    The 1:10:100 rule

    Rs.1 spent on prevention, will save Rs.10 spent on appraisal and Rs.100 on failure costs.

    The earlier you detect and prevent a defect the more you

    can save


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    Cost of Quality Approach 21


    Zero defects while minimizing all four quality cost

    Relation Between cost/value Vs Quality 22

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    Demings Cycle Deming Chain Reaction

    Quality improvement is not a costly business option but a strategic imperative that is essential to business survival

    Quality Cost Productivity

    The Deming Chain Improve Quality Decrease Costs Improve Productivity Decrease Price Increase Market Stay in Business Provide More Jobs Return on Investment


    Demings Cycle

    PDCA 24

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    Plan to improve your operations first by finding out what things are going wrong (that is identify the problems faced), and come up with ideas for solving these problems.

    Do changes designed to solve the problems on a small or experimental scale first. This minimizes disruption to routine activity while testing whether the changes will work or not.

    Check whether the small scale or experimental changes are achieving the desired result or not.

    Act to implement changes on a larger scale if the experiment is successful. This means making the changes a routine part of your activity. Also Act to involve other persons (other departments, suppliers, or customers) to implement them on a larger scale.

    Demings 14 Principles.

    1. Create Constancy of Purpose 2. Adopt A New Philosophy 3. Cease dependence On inspection For Quality 4. End lowest tender contracts 5. Improve Every Process Constantly / Forever 6. Institute Training 7. Adopt An Institute Leadership 8. Drive Out Fear 9. Break Barriers Between Staff Areas 10. Eliminate Exhortations And Targets 11. Eliminate Numerical Quotas 12. remove the barrier that rob Pride Of workmanship 13. Encourage For education & Self Improvement 14. Put everybody In The company To work For This



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    Jurans Triology Approach

    Joseph Juran is one of the Guru of Quality like Deming.

    Juran defined quality as a Fitness for purpose

    If product meets all the specifications, it may not fit for use.

    Juran Trilogy consists of three basic quality-oriented processes:

    quality planning

    quality control

    quality improvement.


    Quality planning

    The role of quality planning is to design a process that will be able to meet established goals under operating conditions.

    The subject of planning can be anything -- an engineering process for designing new products, a production process for making goods, or a service process for responding to customer requests.

    Quality Planning involves Identifying customers.

    Determining their needs.

    Specifying the product features that satisfy those needs at minimum cost.

    Designing the processes that can reliably produce those features.


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    Quality control

    The role of quality control is to operate and correct the process, so that it performs with optimal effectiveness.

    Measure actual performance of product

    Compare actual performance with goals set

    Do the action on difference

    The process of Quality Control involves: Establishing a measurement procedure


    Interpreting differences between measurement and goal.

    Taking action to correct significant differences


    Quality improvement

    The role of quality improvement is to take the process to higher levels of performance.

    Assuming the process is under control, any waste that occurs must be inherent in the design of the process.

    The object of quality improvement is to reduce waste to a much lower level.

    The steps in Quality Improvement: Identify specific area for improvement. Diagnose the causes. Provide remedies. Prove that the remedies are effective under operating



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    Seven Quality Tools

    Cause and Effect Diagrams Flow Charts Check-sheets Histograms Pareto Charts Control Charts Scatter Diagrams


    Understand the root causes of a problem BEFORE you put a

    solution into place

    Investigate the Root Causes

    Cause and Effect Diagrams 32

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    Cause & Effect Diagrams

    Identify many different possible causes for a problem

    See the relationships

    between the many causes Helps determine which

    data to collect

    Why are cause and effect diagrams helpful?

    Focused problem

    Root cause Root cause

    Root cause Root cause



    Cause and Effect Diagrams/Fish bone diagram/Ishikawa diagram

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    Cause and Effect Diagrams/Fish bone diagram/Ishikawa diagram

    Incorrect shipping

    documents (Quality


    Manpower Materials

    Methods Machine

    Environment Keyboard sticks

    Wrong source info

    Wrong purchase order

    Types Source info incorrect

    Didnt follow proc.

    Glare on display Temp.

    No procedure

    No communications

    No training

    Software problem

    Corrupt data


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    Makes customer wait

    Absent receiving party

    Working system of operators

    Customer Operator


    Out of office

    Not at desk


    Too many phone calls


    Not giving receiving partys coordinates


    Leaving a message

    Lengthy talk

    Does not know organization

    well Takes too much time to explain

    Does not understand customer


    Flow Charts


    Show what actually happens at each step in the process

    Graphically display processes to identify redundancies.


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    Material Received

    IS Material of

    Satisfactory Quality?

    Return to Supplier

    Transfer to store




    Raw Material Purchase



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    Tool for collecting and organizing measured or counted data


    Collect data in a systematic and organized manner

    To determine source of problem

    To facilitate classification of data


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    Purpose: To determine the spread or variation of a

    set of data points in a graphical form


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    Consider this simple example. Below shows the exam results collected from a 5 class of 50 individuals:


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    Pareto Charts

    Small number of failures are responsible for the bulk of quality costs, this phenomenon is called as Pareto Principle.

    This pattern is also called the 80/20 rule and shows itself in many ways.

    For example:

    80% of sales are generated by 20% of customers.

    80% of defects are caused by 20% of the problems.

    80% of salary is given to 20% of workers.

    20% - The Vital Few

    or 80% - The Trivial/ Important Many


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    Example of Pareto Chart

    Daily average

    Total number

    A One operator (partner out of office) 14.3 172

    B Receiving party not present 6.1 73

    C No one present in the section receiving call 5.1 61

    D Section and name of the party not given 1.6 19

    E Inquiry about branch office locations 1.3 16

    F Other reasons 0.8 10

    29.2 351

    Reasons why customers have to wait (12-day analysis with check sheet)




    B C A D E F

    Frequency Percentage






    Significant few

    Insignificant many

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    Significant few

    Insignificant many

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    Control Charts

    The control chart is a graph used to study how a process changes over time. Data are plotted in time order.

    A control chart always has a central line for the average, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit.


    Scatter Diagrams Purpose: Relationship between two characteristic value are plotted and analyze as

    to whether a correlation exists between the two set of data.

    To understand the behaviour of a process.


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    This is a scatter plot showing the amount of sleep needed per day by age. As you can see, as you grow older, you need less sleep.


    Negative Correlation


    This scatter plots show the average income for adults based on the number of years of education completed.

    Positive Correlation

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    None Low High Perfect

    Degrees of correlation:


    New Seven Quality Tools

    Affinity Diagram : Grouping of the idea of Brainstorming.

    Relation Diagram : Diagram of Why-why analysis.

    Tree Diagram : For Systematically Pursuing the Best Strategies for Attaining an


    Matrix Diagram : A matrix to express the strong-ness of relationship between two things.

    Arrow Diagram : For Working Out Optimal Schedules and Controlling Them Effectively

    Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC) : Used to plan various contingencies

    Same to Flow chart

    Matrix Data Analysis : Consists of a two-dimensional array to determine location and nature of problem


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    Quality Circle

    Formation of quality circle is becoming imperative in todays world where the customer's expectations keep changing and it become tougher day by day to get to the level of delighting the customer. Voluntary group of persons Meet on regular basis Work on similar tasks Share area of responsibility Solve problems related to work voluntarily meet regularly for about an hour every week to identify, analyze and resolve work related problems, leading to improvement, In their total performance and enrichment of their work life."



    Change in attitude

    Effective team work

    Self development

    Job satisfaction


    Leadership development

    Improved organizational culture

    Promote individuals self-development

    Create problem prevention attitudes.

    Improve customer relations and service delivery

    Encourage the flow of new ideas


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    Benefits of quality Circles Increased in quality


    team work

    Improve over all company performance

    and corporate image.


    Organization structure

    Non Qc - Members





    Steering committee

    Top Management

    Element of quality circle A steering committee Coordinator Facilitator leader members


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    Awards for Quality

    National individual awards Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award

    IMC Ramakrishna Bajaj National Quality Award

    Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)

    Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA)

    International awards European Quality Award

    Canadian Quality Award

    Australian Business Excellence Award

    Deming Prize from Japan

    Criteria- Leadership, Information and analysis, Strategic planning, Human resource, Business results, management, Customer and market focus