quiet resistance - russian pictorialism 1900–1930s (photography art ebook)

Download Quiet Resistance - Russian Pictorialism 1900–1930s (Photography Art eBook)

Post on 16-Oct-2015

63 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

An overview of Russian Pictorialism during the early 20th century

TRANSCRIPT

  • 5/26/2018 Quiet Resistance - Russian Pictorialism 19001930s (Photography Art eBook)

    1/191

  • 5/26/2018 Quiet Resistance - Russian Pictorialism 19001930s (Photography Art eBook)

    2/191

    This catalogue is published to accompany the exhibitionQuiet Resistance: Russian Pictorialism. 19001930sat the Fondazione Scientifica Querini Stampalia Onlus, Venice,

    April to May 2005.

    Curator: Olga SviblovaContributors: Sergey Burasovsky, Mikhail Golosovsky,Elena Misalandi, Anastasia Chernenkova

    Compiled and edited by Elena MisalandiDesigned by Artur DiaghilevTranslated by Dmitry FedosovProof-read by Olga Kanunnikova

    Multimedia Complex of Actual Arts, GUK, Moscow,publication, 2005 Olga Sviblova, text, 2005 Dmitry Fedosov, translation, 2005

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form without written permission from the publisher

    119034, Moscow, Ostozhenka St., 16Tel.: (095) 231 3326, 231 3327Fax: (095) 202 4346

    e-mail: info@mdf.ru

    We thank the following lenders to the exhibition:Mikhail Golosovsky, Union of Photo-Artists of Russia,Andrey Baskakov, Varvara Rodchenko, Aleksandr Lavrentyev,Ludmila Mashanskaya, Aleksey Andreyev

    Photo on front cover: Alexander Grinberg. Study of Movement. 1926

    . 19001930- . FondazioneScientifica Querini Stampalia Onlus, ,

    2005

    : : , , ,

    : : : :

    . , , 2005 , , 2005 , , 2005

    .

    119034, , . , 16.: (095) 231 3326, 231 3327: (095) 202 4346

    e-mail: info@mdf.ru

    : , , , , ,

    : . . . 1926

    . 1900 1930- .:. .: . , 2005. 192 .

    ISBN 5-93977-019-3

  • 5/26/2018 Quiet Resistance - Russian Pictorialism 19001930s (Photography Art eBook)

    3/191

    .

    Published by Multimedia Complex of Actual Arts, GUK, MoscowMoscow House of Photography Museum

    QUIET

    RESISTANCE

    19001930-

    RussianPictorialismofthe19

    00s1930s

  • 5/26/2018 Quiet Resistance - Russian Pictorialism 19001930s (Photography Art eBook)

    4/191

    1920-1930- , , .,

    , -, , , - , - -. , - .- - , - , -, . - , , -

    , , , .

    , , , - . - - , , . , - XIX , 20-

    . - .

    10 1928 - . , , - , , ( 1930-), , - , -

    , - .

    , - , - , , - - .

    - , , .

    - - . , , , . , 1925 : , , .1

    -

    , , -, , , , - , -.2

    1920- , - , , - 30- . 1920-

    , , -. , , , , -

    . - , , - , , , . ,

    .

    , .. , - , - , , : . , , , - .3

  • 5/26/2018 Quiet Resistance - Russian Pictorialism 19001930s (Photography Art eBook)

    5/191

    1935 . -

    . (1935 .), - . - . . - . 1930- .

    , -

    . , , -, -. , .

    1928 : ( ), - .4 1930-, ,

    . , ... , , , , 12 1943 : -

    , . -, -. ? .5

    1930- , ,

    . ,

    - . - ,

    , , - , . -. 19001930-, , -. ,

    . , - ,

    .

    80- XX

    . - 1990-. - . . - - .

    1 , 1926, 1, . 27.2 . . . ,

    1936, 5-6, . 17.3 . , 1936, 5-6, . 32.4 . . ., 1996, . 199-200.5 . , . 282.

    ,

  • 5/26/2018 Quiet Resistance - Russian Pictorialism 19001930s (Photography Art eBook)

    6/191

    R

    ussian photographic Avant-Garde of the 1920s and1930s, represented by Aleksandr Rodchenko, El Lissitzky,Boris Ignatovich and others, in spite of persecution and

    repressive measures of the totalitarian regime, becamea classic part of Russian and world art. Moreover, it became a sym-bol of the powerful energy and innovative spirit of Soviet Russia inthe first years after the October revolution of 1917. But few peoplerealize that at the very same period there was another, pictorialtrend in Russian photography, which strove to approximate pho-tography to painting, using mainly soft lenses and special, oftenvery sophisticated printing techniques. Pictorial photography chal-lenged documentary shots and, just like painting, sought to conveythe emotional side of things, and to express the individual sensesand meanings implied by the artist in his work.

    The masters of Russian pictorial photography, AlexanderGrinberg, Yury Yeremin, Nikolai Andreev, Nikolai Svishchov-Paola and others, were firmly a part of the world art scene.They frequently won gold and silver medals at major internationalphoto shows and salons in Europe, United States and Japan.Pictorialism in world photography, born in the late nineteenth cen-tury, has largely exhausted its aesthetic potential by the mid-1920s.In Soviet Russia, however, it revived just then.

    In 1928, at the exhibition 10 Years of Soviet Photography, the so-called old school clearly dominated, if we consider the number of

    participants and their works by comparison with the modernists andadherents of the new Soviet reportage. In the same year, despite thefact that rigid ideological pressure on artists, expected to embraceright away the new aesthetics of Socialist realism, was yet to come(in the early and mid-1930s), photographers of the pictorial trendwere branded as bearers of bourgeois ideology, idealist individualsand upholders of the old pre-Revolution ways.

    This was actually true insofar as pictorial photo artists went on tolive and work in the new Soviet state, largely adhering to the hal-lowed human values and their own existential and aesthetic experi-

    ence. Not all of them rushed to adopt Soviet slogans, whichenforced the priority of the collective over the individual, withexalted rapture for revolutionary achievements.

    Their subject matter was mostly confined to traditional pictorialthemes, i.e. landscapes, nudes, shots of old mansion houses, andunpretentious genre scenes. A brilliant sense of composition andvirtuoso technique of execution endeared the pictorialists to organ-isers of international photo shows and salons. Foreign press devot-ed much attention to them and, curiously, just like Soviet critics,regarded them as aesthetic opposition to the militant Soviet ideolo-gy. For instance, after the Paris salon of 1925 a British photo mag-

    azine observed that whatever their political convictions, theRussians in the shots they sent firmly stand within traditionalbounds.1

    Pictorialist photographers were vehemently attacked by Soviet crit-ics, who vainly pointed out the only righteous way to Socialistrealism. As one author put it in 1936, contemporary Soviet realityis such that laughter, joy and smiles are typical features of our newway of life, so that our life has become really wonderful.2

    Photographic debates of the late 1920s were mostly about aesthet-ics, focusing on the advantages of certain compositions and oppor-tunities offered by different optical devices or printing techniques.But by the early 30s aesthetics yielded to ideology. From the late1920s onwards all spheres of Soviet life, including the art of pho-

    tography, were haunted by the search for enemies of revolutionarychanges. The enemy image became a foundation for ideologicalpropaganda. On the one hand it paralysed everyones personalitywith fear, on the other, it aimed to consolidate and inspire themasses in their heroic efforts for the sake of radiant future.Thus pictorialists ended up as enemies in photography.They were accused of predilection for the old non-revolutionaryworld, where bourgeois values reigned supreme and ignored classstruggles. Passion for landscapes, old palaces or naked womenwas condemned as Turgenevs stuff (after the nineteenth-centurywriter) and political short-sightedness.

    Nevertheless, the more violent the attacks became, the strongerthe quiet resistance. Working with non-Soviet subjects, pictorial-ists defended their aesthetics, which took shape before revolution-ary upheavals, and their outlook, which differed from the newBolshevik mythology. Wrote Yury Yeremin, I am going on myway bravely and calmly. As to reconstruction, for those whoregard it lightly it is very easy to change their ways. 3

    In 1935 moral persecution of artists led to physical repressions.Under a ludicrous pretext of dissemination of pornographyAlexander Grinberg was sent to one of Stalins labour camps.The charges followed the exhibition Masters of SovietPhotography, held in 1935, where that master of internationalrenown showed his studies of naked nature. Nudes were purgedfrom Soviet photography. Vassily Ulitin was exiled from the capi-tal, and virtually all pictorialists lost their right to practisetheir profession. Since the late 1930s they were also deprivedof the chance to exhibit their works abroad.

    In spite of the crackdown, masters of Russian pictorial photogra-phy persevered in their creative work. For example, Yury Yereminlocked himself up in the bathroom of a big communal flat and

  • 5/26/2018 Quiet Resistance - Russian Pictorialism 19001930s (Photography Art eBook)

    7/191

    secretly printed his favourite photos in small format. Any of themwould have been sufficient to condemn him.

    In 1928 in Novy LEF magazine Alexander Rodchenko spoke outagainst pictorialists: It is not so much painting we are strugglingwith (it is dying anyway), but rather with photography a