Radiation Can Be Fun….!!!! But R.E.S.P.E.C.T. it

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p> Slide 2 Radiation Can Be Fun.!!!! But R.E.S.P.E.C.T. it....... Slide 3 Slide 4 Yet Another Radiation Safety Session Brought to you by your neighborhood radiation safety professionals Dedicated to the Health, Safety and Welfare of our Community Slide 5 Radiation Safety Training Nuclear Medicine Technologists S taff Safety S taff Safety P atient Safety P atient Safety G eneral Safety G eneral Safety Slide 6 Overview Federal &amp; State Regulatory Concerns Federal &amp; State Regulatory Concerns Natural Sources of Radiation Exposure Natural Sources of Radiation Exposure Occupational Sources of Radiation Exposure Occupational Sources of Radiation Exposure Regulatory Exposure Limits Regulatory Exposure Limits Basic Radiation Safety Principles Basic Radiation Safety Principles Biological Effects Biological Effects UCHC Safety Requirements UCHC Safety Requirements Slide 7 Radiation vs. Radioactivity Radiation - Energy in transit in the form of high speed particles and electromagnetic waves. Radiation - Energy in transit in the form of high speed particles and electromagnetic waves. Ionizing Radiation - Radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly bound electrons from their orbits, causing the atom to become charged or ionized. Ionizing Radiation - Radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly bound electrons from their orbits, causing the atom to become charged or ionized. Radioactivity - Spontaneous transformation of an unstable atom and often results in the emission of radiation. This process is referred to as a transformation, a decay or a disintegration of an atom. Radioactivity - Spontaneous transformation of an unstable atom and often results in the emission of radiation. This process is referred to as a transformation, a decay or a disintegration of an atom. Slide 8 Beta Decay Slide 9 Gamma Decay Slide 10 External vs. Internal Radiation Exposure External exposure x-rays, brachytherapy patients, iodine therapies, dose preparation and administration External exposure x-rays, brachytherapy patients, iodine therapies, dose preparation and administration Internal deposition contamination from an iodine patient resulting in an ingestion of radioactive materials Internal deposition contamination from an iodine patient resulting in an ingestion of radioactive materials Slide 11 20.1201 Occupational dose limits for adults. (a)The licensee shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures under 20.1206, to the following dose limits. (1) An annual limit, which is the more limiting of -- (i) The total effective dose equivalent being equal to 5 rems (0.05 Sv); or (ii) The sum of the deep-dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye being equal to 50 rems (0.5 Sv). (2) The annual limits to the lens of the eye, to the skin of the whole body, and to the skin of the extremities, which are: (i) A lens dose equivalent of 15 rems (0.15 Sv), and (ii) A shallow-dose equivalent of 50 rem (0.5 Sv) to the skin of the whole body or to the skin of any extremity. Slide 12 Radiation Exposure Limits Type of exposure Type of exposure Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) which is the sum of the deep-dose equivalent (for external exposures) and the committed effective dose equivalent (for internal exposures) for the whole body Sum of the deep-dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye Sum of the deep-dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye Eye dose equivalent (lens of the eye) Shallow dose equivalent to the skin or to any extremity Rem Per Year Rem Per Year 5 or 5,000 mrems 50 or 50,000 mrems 15 or 15,000 mrems 50 or 50,000 mrems Slide 13 Radiation Exposure Limits Whole body; Head and trunk; Active blood-forming organs; Lens of eyes, or gonads. Hands and forearms; Feet and ankles. Skin of whole body. 1.2518.757.5 ( 1,250 mrem) (5.0 rem/yr) (18,750 mrem) (75 rem/yr) (7,500 mrem) (30 rem/yr) Rem Per Calendar Quarter Type of Exposure (State of Connecticut Administrative Regulations Sect. 19-24-5) Fetus 500 mrem Total Gestation (0.5 rem) Slide 14 Basic Radiation Safety Principles T ime D istance S hielding C ontamination Control Slide 15 Inverse Square Law ( 137 Cs 192 Ir) For a point source, the intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source. For a point source, the intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source. gamma radiation gamma radiation 1 cm 10,000 2 cm 2,500 5 cm 400 10 cm 100 20 cm 25 Slide 16 Radiation Exposure Monitoring Whole Body Radiation Badge Worn Underneath Pb Apron Collar Radiation Badge Worn Outside Pb Apron At Neck Level BLACK ICONRED ICON Extremity Radiation Badge Worn on Primary Hand Closest to Radiation Source Slide 17 ALARA Investigational Level I Slide 18 Radiopharmaceutical Therapies 131 I 153 Sm 32 P Unsealed Radioactive Liquid or Radioactive Capsule (IV or PO) Unsealed Radioactive Liquid or Radioactive Capsule (IV or PO) Extreme Contamination Concern Extreme Contamination Concern All Body Fluids Will Be Contaminated All Body Fluids Will Be Contaminated Slide 19 Phosphorus-32 Synovectomy Slide 20 Slide 21 Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 24 Slide 25 Slide 26 Slide 27 Slide 28 Slide 29 Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 Slide 36 Slide 37 Slide 38 Slide 39 Contaminated areas 9 Contaminated areas 9 Stress lab 2 Stress lab 2 Skin CONTAM, known 3 Skin CONTAM, known 3 Skin CONTAM, unknown 2 Skin CONTAM, unknown 2 Needle stick+CONTAM. 1 Needle stick+CONTAM. 1 Outside staff in dept 2 Outside staff in dept 2 Plumber and pg doc Slide 40 Within The same week for 131-I Within The same week for 131-I Within 7 days 125-I Within 7 days 125-I MDA about 0.0005 UCI, o.5 NCI MDA about 0.0005 UCI, o.5 NCI MDD, 131-i 0.5 mrem TODE MDD, 131-i 0.5 mrem TODE Slide 41 Thyroid counts Thyroid counts Signatures Signatures Spills Spills Package surveys Package surveys Gloves in hot lab-monitoring Gloves in hot lab-monitoring Access to the department Access to the department Incorrect 99m-TC dose Incorrect 99m-TC dose Slide 42 CONTAMINANTAVERAGE DPM/CM^2DPM/100 CM^2 Beta/Gamma22 2200 Alpha2.2 220 T.I. = mrem/hr @ 1 meter from sufrace TRANSPORT INDEXMAX. MR/HR SURFACE LABEL 0 (</p>

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