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  • Rail Systems and Rail Vehicles

    Part 1: Rail Systems

    by

    Evert Andersson, Mats Berg,

    Sebastian Stichel, Carlos Casanueva

    Stockholm 2016 ISBN 978-91-7595-922-1

    KTH RAILWAY GROUP Centre for Research and Education in Railway Engineering

    Div. of Rail Vehicles Dep. of Aeronautical & Vehicle Eng. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH)

  • Rail Systems and Rail Vehicles

    Part 2: Rail Vehicles

    by

    Evert Andersson, Mats Berg,

    Sebastian Stichel, Carlos Casanueva

    Stockholm 2016 ISBN 978-91-7595-922-1

    KTH RAILWAY GROUP Centre for Research and Education in Railway Engineering

    Div. of Rail Vehicles Dep. of Aeronautical & Vehicle Eng. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH)

  • Preface and acknowledgements

    This compendium is mainly intended for the MSc education in rail vehicle engineer- ing at Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH Royal Institute of Technology), Stock- holm, Sweden. It has been developed since the late 1980s and now appears in its first edition in English.

    The objective is to give an overview and fundamental knowledge of different rail systems, followed by a more thorough introduction to rail vehicles. In this way most rail aspects are covered.

    The compendium consists of two parts (text books):

    • Part 1: Rail Systems (Chapter 1-11)

    • Part 2: Rail Vehicles (Chapter 12-20)

    Several persons have been involved in the development of this compendium. In addition to the authors, significant contributions have been given by Roger Enblom, David Wennberg, Tomas Muld, Babette Dirks and Tomas Karis. Contributions have also been provided from other members of the KTH Railway Group as well as from Bombardier Transportation and Trafikverket (Swedish Transport Administration). In addition, several persons have been involved in patiently editing the texts, figures and tables; in particular Matin Sichani, Emmanouil Doulgerakis, Márton Pálinkó and Robin Prevolnik. Most of the content has also been checked for the English language by Ian Hutchinson. We want to cordially thank all these persons and organisations for their support.

    We hope that this compendium will enhance the knowledge and understanding of rail systems and rail vehicles. Being the first edition (in English), comments on the contents etc are more than welcome.

    Stockholm, April 2016

    Evert Andersson Mats Berg Sebastian Stichel Carlos Casanueva Professor emeritus Professor Professor Assistant Professor

    1

  • 2

  • Contents

    1 Introduction to rail system technology 1-1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.2 Advantages and disadvantages of rail systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1.3 Interaction with other transport modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 1.4 Alternative guided systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

    2 Track components and geometry 2-1 2.1 Track components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

    2.1.1 Rails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1.2 Rail fastenings and pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.1.3 Sleepers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 2.1.4 Ballast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 2.1.5 Jointed tracks and CWR tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 2.1.6 Classification of tracks related to their components . . . . . . 2-6 2.1.7 Switches and crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6

    2.2 Track design geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 2.2.1 Track gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 2.2.2 Horizontal circular curves - radius and cant . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 2.2.3 Transition curves and superelevation ramps . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 2.2.4 Longitudinal track gradient and vertical curves . . . . . . . . 2-9

    2.3 Track irregularities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 2.3.1 Measuring track irregularities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 2.3.2 Classification of track irregularities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 2.3.3 Rail corrugation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14

    3 Rail vehicles 3-1 3.1 Basic terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.2 Vehicle weight, identification and gauging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

    3.2.1 Weight and axle load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.2.2 Axle arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 3.2.3 Vehicle classification and identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 3.2.4 Vehicle gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8

    3.3 Carbodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 3.3.1 Operational and safety demands, choice of material . . . . . . 3-10 3.3.2 Buffers and couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11

    3.4 Running gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 3.4.1 Wheelset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13

    3

  • CONTENTS

    3.4.2 Principles for running gear and suspension . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 3.5 Traction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16 3.6 Braking systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19 3.7 Locomotives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22 3.8 Multiple Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26

    3.8.1 Diesel multiple units (DMU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27 3.8.2 Electric multiple units (EMU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27 3.8.3 Metro cars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30 3.8.4 Trams (Light Rail Vehicles) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31

    3.9 Passenger cars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-32 3.10 High-speed trains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35 3.11 Freight Wagons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-40

    4 Rail vehicle dynamics 4-1 4.1 Vehicle modes of vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4.2 Track plane acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 4.3 Vehicle roll and sway, body plane acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

    4.3.1 Coefficient of flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 4.4 Behaviour of a railway wheelset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6

    4.4.1 Rolling radius difference (conicity) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 4.4.2 Wheelset stability (Klingel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 4.4.3 Curving behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 4.4.4 Wheel-rail contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10

    4.5 Track forces and derailment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 4.5.1 Track forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 4.5.2 Derailment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15

    4.6 Wheel/rail wear and RCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20 4.6.1 Wheel wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20 4.6.2 Rail wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22 4.6.3 Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23

    4.7 Ride comfort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 4.7.1 Criteria for average comfort levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25

    5 Rail electrification 5-1 5.1 Why going electric? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1

    5.1.1 Advantages and disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 5.1.2 Electric power is higher than diesel power . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 5.1.3 Where are rail systems electrified? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3

    5.2 Basics on electric supply systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 5.2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 5.2.2 Why are different supply systems used? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5 5.2.3 Basic theory - DC supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 5.2.4 Basic theory - AC supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10

    5.3 Converters and power supply - realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14 5.3.1 Direct current systems - DC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14 5.3.2 Alternating current systems - AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16

    5.4 Systems for power distribution - realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19

    4

  • CONTENTS

    5.4.1 Third rail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20 5.4.2 Overhead line - the aerial catenary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21 5.4.3 Return current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25

    6 Rail traffic control and signalling 6-1 6.1 Introduction and definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6.2 Basic rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3

    6.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 6.2.2 Types of vehicle movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 6.2.3 Authorizing train movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 6.2.4 Automatic train operation (ATO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6

    6.3 Traffic control and signalling in practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6.3.1 The main signal . . . . .

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