Read and Interpret Construction Drawings & specifications

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Sustainable construstion module: Read and Interpret Construction Drawings & specifications

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<ul><li> UnitStandard140414:Readandinterpretconstructiondrawingsand specifications.3credits Adrawingisoneofthemosteffectivetoolswecanusetocommunicatewith.It holdsnobarriersbetweenpeoplewhodonotunderstandeachotherslanguage.It isamethodusedtocommunicateandshareideaswithpeopleofdifferent culturesandnationalities.Ancientrockartdrawingsfoundincavesaroundthe worlddescribesthewayinwhichpeoplelivedinthoseyears. Explainingtoapersonhowtobuildacupboardwillbenearimpossiblewhereas adrawingwilltakebutafewminutes. Theabilitytoreadandinterpretconstructiondrawingsisofgreatvaluetoany constructionworker.Hewillbeabletoaccuratelyconstructanarchitects architecturalconceptanddesignintoarealisticbuildingstructure.Construction drawingsuseslines,words,symbols,abbreviationsandspecificationstoindicate totheconstructionteamwhatthebuildingwilllooklikeandthepurposeanduse thereof.Inthisunitstandardweaimtodescribetoyouindetailhow Constructiondrawingsarereadandinterpreted. A/Wgraphic SpecificOutcomes WewillworktowardsachievingthefollowingSpecificOutcomesinthischapter: 1 Explaintheroleofdrawingsandspecifications. 2 Identifydrawingsandsymbolsusedonaconstructiondrawing. 3 Applyinformationfromdrawingsinconstructionactivities. </li> <li> 4 Interpretspecificationsappearingonconstructiondrawings. </li> <li> UNIT 1EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS. Bytheendofthisunityoushouldbeableto: Explaintheroleofdrawingsinrelationtoprojectspecifications,contract documentation,quantitiesandconstruction.(SO1AC1) Explaintheroleofspecificationsinrelationtoquantities,qualityofwork, contractdocumentationandpaymenttocontractors.(SO1AC2) 1. The role of drawings (SO1 AC1) Theroleofthedrawingsistoshowthegraphicaloutlayofabuildingtobe constructed.Thesedrawingsorplansconsistmainlyoflinesandsymbolsthat aredrawntoaprecisescaledmeasurementtorepresenttheactualbuilding. Buildingsarestructureswhichareplannedanddesignedbyprofessional architects,drawnbydraughtspersonsandbuiltbybuildingcontractors.There arealsomanyotherroleplayerswhowillinteractwiththedrawingsduringthe courseoftheconstruction. Something to know Ninetyninepercentofallbuildingplansaredrawnoncomputerusinga computeraideddraughtingpackage.Someofthemostcommonlyusedprograms areAllycad,AutocadandCaddie. Abuildingprojectstartswithanownerwhointendstoerectabuilding;this couldrangefromasimplehousetoashoppingmallorschoolorevenmulti storeybuildings.Buildingsarenotallofthesamedesignandsizeanditisnot commontofindtwobuildingswhichareexactlythesame.Itisonlyinsituations ofhousingestateswherewewillfindhousesthatareofthesamedesign. Buildingsaredesignedtosatisfythespecificneedsofanownerormore specificallytheclient.Thecomplexityofabuildingstructurerequiresthatafully detailedsetofdocuments,whichclearlyspellsoutacompletedetailed descriptionoftheworkthatneedstobedone. Inorderforthisbefullyunderstoodbythebuildingcontractor,thejobofthe architectwillbetospecifyeachpartorsectionoftheconstructioninfulldetail. Itwillbetotallyimpossibleforanarchitecttodescribethedesignofabuildingin words.Architectswillthereforeproducefullydetaileddrawingstogetherwitha setofspecificationsthatwillbeusedbythecontractortoerectthebuilding. </li> <li> Letsnowtakeacloserlookatsomeoftheimportantdocumentsthatwillbe required:Thecomplexityofthedesignrequiresafullydetaileddescriptionofthe workthatneedstobedone. Thecontractdrawings:Manyofusknowtheseastheplans.Thedrawings representapictorialoverviewoftheproposedbuilding.Itconsistsoflines, symbols,dimensions,levelsandmanyothergraphicalfeaturesofthebuilding. Wewilldiscusstheroleofthedrawingsinmoredetailinalaterchapter. Thespecifications:Specificationscanmostlybedescribedasthatwhichcannot bedrawn.Thespecificationswilleitherbewrittenonthedrawingoritwillbe compiledandanadditionalsetofnotes.Specificationsmustbewrittenclearly andinsimplelanguage.Wordsordescriptions,suchas,bestqualityorhighest qualityorproperworkmanshiparecauseforconfusion.Twoofthemost commonspecificationsinclude: Generalspecificationswhichcontaintheworkmanshipandmaterials,and Projectspecificationscovertheworkmanshipandqualityofthematerialsthat areuniquetoaspecificproject.Projectspecificationswillalwaystakepreference overthegeneralspecifications. TheBillofQuantities:Thepurposeofthebillofquantitiesistolistallthe materialsandlabouroperationsnecessarytoconstructabuilding,togetherwith ameasurementofthequantitiesofmaterialsandworkinvolved.Thisdocument isusedbythecontractorstotenderforacontract.Afullypricedbillconstitutes thecontractorsoffertoundertaketheworkatthatprice.Thebillofquantitiesis drawnupbyaprofessionalquantitysurveyor. Theconditionsofthecontract:Thiswilldefinetheliabilities,responsibilitiesand powersoftheemployer,contractorandarchitect.Itwouldincludemethodsof payment,insurance,liabilityofpartiestothecontract. Thetender:Thisisasignedfinancialofferofthecontractortoconstructthe works. Thelegaldeed:Thisdocumentissignedbybothpartiesconfirmingtheir respectiveintentiontohavecontractbetweenthemasdefinedbyalltheabove documents. Allthesedocumentstogetherwillbeknownasthecontractdocuments. </li> <li> {Importantwordsandideas} Specifications:Isadescriptionofthequalityofworkandmaterialsfora particularjob,writteninasequenceoftradespreparedtoexplainthosethings concerningaprojectwhichcannotbeshownonadrawing, Itsmainpurposewouldbetodefinetheproductstobeused,thequalityofthe work,anyperformancerequirementsandtheconditionsunderwhichtheworkis tobeexecuted. Contractdocumentation:Thecontractdocumentationisalegalcontract whichconsistsofthedrawings,thespecification,thebillofquantitiesor scheduleofprices,thegeneralconditionsofthecontractandalegaldeedwhich bindsthecontractorandtheclient. Sequenceoftrades:Theorderinwhichthevariousbuildingandservicetrades carryouttheirworkinanewbuilding.Thisistheorderinwhichthetrade sectionsoccurinabillofquantitiesorspecification. Billofquantities:Acompletelistofthematerialsandlabouroperations necessarytoconstructabuilding,togetherwithameasurementofthequantities ofmaterialsandworkinvolved.Thisdocumentformsthebasisofthecontractors tenderandeachitemispricedbythecontractorbyinsertingtherateagainst eachitemandmultiplyingitbythequantity.Afullypricedbillconstitutesthe contractorsoffertoundertaketheworkatthatprice. Quantities:Theamountsofbuildingmaterialorbuildingoperationsneededto constructabuildingwhichiswritteninthebillofquantities. Qualityofwork:Theinspectionmethodsimplementedonabuildingsiteto ensurethataproductmaintainsacceptedminimumstandardsofquality. {End} Activity1.1 1. Explain,withnodrawingsorsketches,whereyoulive. 2. Statethedifferencebetweengeneralandprojectspecifications. 3. Statethedifferencebetweenquantitiesandqualityofwork. 4. Whatismeantbycontractdocumentation? </li> <li> 5. Whatismeantbyatenderandalegaldeed? 2.Theroleofthespecifications(SO1AC2) Thepurposeofthespecificationsistodescribeindetailthetypeofmaterialsto beused;thespecificationscomplementthedrawings.Builderswillnotbeableto whattypeandgradeofmaterialswillberequirediftherearenospecifications. Thequantityofmaterialsandqualityofworkwillallbecontainedwithinthe specifications. Quantities:Asweexplainedearliertherearenotwobuildingsthatareexactly thesame.Itstandstoreasonthatthequantityofmaterialswillthenalsodiffer. Thebuilderwillneedtoknowhowmuchmaterialshewillneedtocompletethe proposedbuildingbeforehecandohiscostingandcompletehistender.This informationiscontainedwithinthebillofquantitieswhichconsistofanitemised listallthematerialsthatwillberequiredtocompletethejob. Thequalityofwork:Thisisoneofthemainpurposesofthespecificationsand hasadirectlinktowardsthetypeofmaterialstobeused.Themethodshemay ormaynotuseinordertoconstructthebuilding.Itwillgiveacleardescription ofthematerials,example,thetypeofsandfortheconcretemustbewellgraded riversandorallthebrickjointsmustbegroutedwithmortarwithnoopenings betweenthebrickjoints. Contractdocumentation:Thesewouldincludetheconditionsofthecontractand willaddressissuesconcerningthe: Theextentoftheworktobedone Thestartandcompletiondatesofthecontract Accesstothesite Arrangementsforthestoringofmaterials Temporaryservicesonsiteintheformofwaterconnection,electricityand toilets. Thehealthandsafetyoftheworkersaswellasthegeneralpublic Thesearebutafewalthoughtherecouldbemanymoreissueswhichbe considered. Paymenttocontractors Abuildingcontractorispaidforworkcompletedandisneverpaidinadvance. Thesepaymentsareknownasinterimpayments.Inhugeprojectspaymentswill </li> <li> bedoneonamonthlybasis,whereasinsmallerprojectspaymentsaredone duringthedifferentstagesasbuildingprogresses.Thesestageswouldbeagreed uponbythearchitectandbuilderwhenthecontractissigned.Thepaymentor certificatewillstatetheworkthatwascompletedandthematerialsthatwere used.Atypicalpaymentplanforanormalhousewouldbe: Atthecompletionofthefoundationuptofloorlevel; Thesuperstructureuptotherooflevel; Whentheroofiscompleted; Atthecompletionofthehouse Thefinalpaymentwillbewhenalldefectsarecompleted. Activity1.2 1. Whichimportantpointsmustbeconsideredintheconditionsofcontract? 2. Whatisthepurposeofthespecifications? 3. Atwhatstagesofacontractwillthebuildingcontractorbepaid? </li> <li> UNIT 2 IDENTIFY DRAWINGS AND SYMBOLS USED ON A CONSTRUCTION DRAWING Bytheendofthisunityoushouldbeableto: Identifydrawingsintermsoftypeandapplicationforaconstruction process.(SO2AC1) Explainthekeyfunctionsofthedrawingintermsofthefinishedproduct. (SO2AC2) Identifythekeyusersofthedrawingintermsofworkresponsibility.(SO2 AC3) Interpretsymbolsandabbreviationsintermsoftheirfunctionsand meanings(SO2AC4) Interpretthelayoutintermsofthedifferentviewsshown(SO2AC5) Explainthepurposeofeachviewintermsoftheresultoftheendproduct (SO2AC6) 1 The different types of drawings and their applications. (SO2 AC1) Itwouldnotbepossibletogiveabuilderawrittendescriptionhowtoconstructa building.Theconstructionofanybuildingwouldrequireacompletesetof drawingsthatwouldshowalltheaspectsandoutlayofaproposedbuilding. Thesedrawingsarecommonlyreferredtoastheconstructiondrawings,building planorplan. Buildingsaredesignedbyprofessionalarchitectswhoemploytheservicesof draughtspersonstodrawtheworkingdrawingsforaproject.Thedraughts personmustensurethatheconveysthearchitectsdesigncorrectlyand accuratelytothebuilderandindoingsohemustensurethatheincludesallthe necessaryinformationontheplanforthesuccessfulcompletionofthebuilding. Aconstructiondrawingforasinglestoreyhousewouldconsistofthefollowing drawings: Asiteplan Aplanviewofthefloorlayout Sectionalviews Elevations Schematiclayoutofthesewageplan Details Eachofthesedrawingswouldbeaccompaniedwithalldimensions,notesand labels.Thebuildermustbeprovidedwithalltherequiredinformationto constructthehouse.Supposingthehousehasanadditionalfloorabove,thatis,a </li> <li> doublestoreyhouse,thentherewillhavetoplansforthereinforcedconcrete floorandstaircase.Theseareplansthatarepreparedbyaprofessionalcivil engineerandwouldinclude: Asteelreinforcementlayoutplanforthefloorandstaircase Aschedulethatwouldshowthesizesandshapesofthereinforcingsteel. 2 The key functions of the drawing in terms of the finished product. (SO2 AC2) Thekeyfunctionofthedrawingsisthatitmustbeclear,easytoread.The drawingsmustconsistofsufficientplanlayouts,sectionsandelevations, togetherwithdetailsforspecialpartsoftheconstruction.Thedrawingsmustbe neatlydrawn;withalldimensions,notesandspecificationsclearlystated.It musthaveaclearindicationwhatthefinishedbuildingwilllooklike.The constructionteammustbeabletounderstandthepurposeofthebuilding.There mustbenouncertaintywhichwillconfusethebuilders.Buildingsaredesigned asfitforpurposeforitsintendeduse.Thebuildingmustbeerectedtothecorrect specificationsasdesignedbythearchitect.Changestotheoriginaldesigncan onlybeaffectedbytheownerviathearchitect.Theownerorthebuilderisnot allowedtomakeanychangeswithoutconsultingthearchitect. 3 The key users of the drawings (SO2 AC3) Beforeandduringtheconstructiontheplanswillbeusedbyvariouspeoplewho areeitherdirectlyorindirectlyinvolvedwiththeconstructionofthebuilding. Itmightbeworthmentioningatthisstagethatmanymonthswouldpass betweenthedrawingoftheplansandthebuildingbeingconstructed.Thereason forthisisthattheplanwillgothroughmanystagesbeforefinalapprovalis grantedforthebuildingtobeerected.Thisapprovalstartswiththeclientor ownerapprovingthedesignandcostofthebuildingandthentherearethemany divisionswithinthelocalauthorityapprovingtheconstructionmethods. Oncethedrawingsareapprovedandabuildingcontractorisappointed,the contractorwillthenusethedrawingstocalculateandordertherequired buildingmaterials.Copiesofthedrawingsarealsosenttocompanieswho specializeincertainpartsoftheconstruction,thesecompaniesarecalledsub contractors.Examplesofsubcontractingcompaniesareplumbing,electricaland paintingcompanies. Acopyoftheplancanalsobesenttoaroofingcompanytopreparetheroof trusses. </li> <li> Something to know Thebuildingcontractorisalsoknownasthemaincontractor. Subcontractorsareeithernominatedbythearchitectorownerortheyare contractedbythemaincontractor. Aplumbingcompanywillsupplythenewbuildingwithitsownwatersupply; installthebathroomfitmentsandfittingsaswellasthehotwatercylinderand kitchensink.Theyalsoconstructtheundergroundsewerdrainagesystem. Anelectricalcompanywillsupplythebuildingwithelectricity,eitherbysolar panelsorcables,lightfittings,powerplugsandconnectthehotwatercylinderto thepowersupply. Thebuildingcontractorsonsiterepresentative,knownasthegeneralforeman, willfirstusetheplanstolocatetheplotorsitewherethebuildingistobe constructed,thentopreparethesitereadyforbuildingby: Settingupthetemporarysitestructures,suchas,shedsforstoring materials,office,toiletsandtemporarywatersupply. Settingupasuitablepositionfortheconcretemixer Identifyingstorageareasforbricks,sandandstone. Identifyingaccessfordeliveryvehicleswithoutdisruptingthegeneralflow ofvehiculartraffic Settingupsecurityfencingtoprotectthegeneralpublic Oncethesitehasbeencleanedtheplanswillbeusedto: Setoutthepositionofthebuilding Establishthelevelsandheightsofthebuilding Activity2.1 1. Whodrawstheworkingsdrawingsforabuildingproject? 2. Whichpartsofthebuildingmustacivilengineerpreparedrawingfor? 3. Namethreeexamplesonabuildingsitewheresubcontractorsareused. 4. Whichpartsofthedrawingwouldbeofinteresttoaplumber? 5. Whorepresentsthebuildingcontractoronabuildingsite?...</li></ul>

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