regents biology 2006-2007 the chemistry of life what are living creatures made of? why do we have to...
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Slide 2 Regents Biology 2006-2007 The Chemistry of Life What are living creatures made of? Why do we have to eat? Slide 3 Regents Biology 96% of living organisms is made of: carbon (C) oxygen (O) hydrogen (H) nitrogen (N) Elements of Life Slide 4 Regents Biology Molecules of Life Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms What are bodies made of? carbohydrates sugars & starches proteins fats (lipids) nucleic acids DNA, RNA Slide 5 Regents Biology Why do we eat? We eat to take in more of these chemicals Food for building materials to make more of us (cells) for growth for repair Food to make energy calories to make ATP ATP Slide 6 Regents Biology What do we need to eat? Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy for building & running bodies carbohydrates proteins fats nucleic acids vitamins minerals, salts water Slide 7 Regents Biology Water 65% of your body is H 2 O water is inorganic doesnt contain carbon Rest of you is made of carbon molecules organic molecules carbohydrates proteins fats nucleic acids Dont forget water Slide 8 Regents Biology 2006-2007 How do we make these molecules? We build them! Slide 9 Regents Biology Building large molecules of life Chain together smaller molecules building block molecules = monomers Big molecules built from little molecules polymers Slide 10 Regents Biology Small molecules = building blocks Bond them together = polymers Building large organic molecules Slide 11 Regents Biology Building important polymers sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide Carbohydrates = built from sugars Proteins = built from amino acids Nucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotides amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid Slide 12 Regents Biology How to build large molecules Synthesis building bigger molecules from smaller molecules building cells & bodies repair growth reproduction + ATP Slide 13 Regents Biology How to take large molecules apart Digestion taking big molecules apart getting raw materials for synthesis & growth making energy (ATP) for synthesis, growth & everyday functions + ATP Slide 14 Regents Biology Example of digestion starchglucose ATP Starch is digested to glucose Slide 15 Regents Biology Example of synthesis amino acidsprotein amino acids = building block protein = polymer Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids Slide 16 Regents Biology Penguins gone bad! Any Questions? Slide 17 Regents Biology Old Food Pyramid Slide 18 Regents Biology New Food Pyramid