reinforced concrete engineer's outlook

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  • TAGARCHIVES: RE INFORCEDCONCRETE

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    ReinforcedConcreteDesignPostedonMay22,2013

    ReinforcedConcreteDesign.MyblogwhichIusedmostofmytime,research,writingaboutconcretedesigncalculations.!!!

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    PostedinEngineering,ReinforcedConcrete|TaggedJosephMonier,ReinforcedConcrete,Structuralengineering|1Reply

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    ReinforcedConcreteDesignPostedonMay21,2013

    WhatmakesUniqueofRC?

    ItisaCOMPOSITEMATERIAL

    ItrequiresAPPLICATIONofmoreinvolvedPrinciplesofMechanicsStructural Design is iterative requiring both ANALYSIS and DESIGN DECISIONSaidedbyjudgmentandEXPERIENCE.

    Engineer'sOutlookAnEngineer'sSimpleOutlookandJournalblog..

  • ACI318themodelcodeintheUnitedStatesofAmericaforguidingthedesignofRCmembers,lookatChapter8.NSCP Code the code in the Philippines..conforms to the provisions of ACI 318Code!!!

    ImportantMaterialProperties

    ConcreteStrengthandSteelStrength

    28dayCompressiveStrength,fc:ACI318Code2011edition,Chapter5.ModulusofElasticityofConcrete,Ec:ACI318Code2011edition,Chapter8.5Strengthpropertyoryieldstrength,fy..ModulusofElasticityofSteel,Es:29,000,000psiACI318Code2011edition.

    1.ProceduresonhowtoDesignReinforcedConcreteBeams!!!

    ConcreteBeamSizing..!

    DeterminationofBeamSize(bxh)USESpreadsheetorHandCalculation!!!

    ConcreteBeamSize(bxh)or(bxd),FORMULA:

    BeamSectionDiagram

  • BeamSizeFormula

    BeamSection,StrainandForceDiagram

  • RebarsDetermination..

    AreaofSteel(As)determination!!!

    EquilibriumEquationormNeutralAxisDistance,cQuadraticEquationforc

    StrengthFormula

    As

  • TheACICode10.3.3to10.3.5limitsontheSteelRatio(rho):

    1.1MinimumBeamSizeforwhichDeflectionsareNOTLIKELYtobeaProblem.

    1.1.1SetNeutralAxisdistance,c=0.375cb.

    1.2 Arrangement of Rebars, Splicing points and splice length, development length, hooksrequirement,andrequiredStirrups.

    Rho

    SmallestBeamSizeNOTLIKELYTOHAVEDEFLECTIONPROBLEM

  • StirrupSpacingRequirementsperACI

    StirrupMaximumSpacing

  • ACIBottomBarSpliceRequirements

    ACIStandardsforTopandBottomSpliceRequirements

  • 2.ProceduresonhowtoDesignReinforcedConcreteColumns!!!

    ACIStandardsforBeamsReinforcements

  • TieDesignStandards

  • ACIStandardsColumnsBarsDetails

  • ACIColumnSpliceDetails

  • ACIBarBendingDetails

  • ACIBarBendingDetails

  • 2.A.StructuralDesignforcolumnusingInteractionDiagram!!!

    2.B.ExampleofACIInteractionDiagram.

    ACIColumnTiesRequirements

    InteractionDiagramplotusingColumndesignsoftwareandMSExcelSpreadsheet

  • InteractionDiagramRectangularSectionCourtesyofACI

  • 2.C.SummaryofColumnDesignRequirements!!!

    InteractionDiagramSpiralColumnCourtesyofACI

  • 2.1 Strength Reduction Factor, phi =0.70 applicable up through ACI 3181999 they havebeenchangedtophi=0.65,forcompressioncontrolledmembers(columnsandbeamsundercompressioncontrols)beginningwithACI3182002Code,andcontinuingwiththeACI31805and2008uptopresent.

    3.Example: Design of Concrete Members, i.e. Frame Analysis, Beams, Columns,FootingsusingMSSpreadsheet.

    ColumnDesignRequirements

  • FRAMEANALYSISMyownSpreadsheetProgram

  • MSExcelSpreadsheetforColumn

  • ColumnExcelSpreadsheet

  • RCBEAMS

    RCFOOTING1

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    REFERENCES:

    1. DesignofReinforcedConcretebyJack.C.McCormc,3rdedition1993,7thedition2005,9thedition2011

    2. DesignofConcreteStructuresbyArthurH.Nilson,12thedition1997,Internationaledition

    3. DesignofConcreteStructuresbyArthurH.Nilson,14thedition2010,Internationaledition

    4. ReinforcedConcrete(AFundamentalApproach),byEdwardG.Nawy,6thedition2008,

    5. ReinforcedConcrete,MechanicsandDesign,byJamesK.WightandJamesG.MacGregor,6thedition2012,

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    PostedinEngineering,ReinforcedConcrete|TaggedReinforcedConcrete,Structuralengineering|2Replies

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    HistoryofReinforcedConcreteandStructuralDesignPostedonMay4,2012

    Engineer'sOutlook

    The average person thinks that concrete has been in common use for manycenturies, but such is not the case. Although the Romansmade cement calledPozzolana before Christ bymixing slaked lime with a volcanic ash fromMountVesuviusandusedittomakeconcreteforbuilding,theartwaslostduringtheDarkAges 5th century 15th century A.D. and was not revived until eighteenth andnineteenthcenturies(A.D.).MarcusVitruviusPollio,Vitruvius,anArchitect/EngineerduringthegoldenageofCaesarAugustus(around25BC).Inhiswritingsaround25BCinTenBooksonArchitecturedistinguishedtypesofaggregateappropriateforthepreparations of limemortars. For the use of structuralmembers, he recommendedpozzolana,whichwere volcanic sand from the sandlike beds ofPuteoli, brownishyellowgray in color near Naples and reddish brown at Rome. He specifies 1 partlimeto3parts

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    PostedinEngineering|TaggedEarlyRenaissance,Greekengineering,Hannebique,JosephMonier,ReinforcedConcrete,Romansengineering,Structuralengineering

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    HistoryofStructuralAnalysisPostedonApril8,2012

    Engineer'sOutlook

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    STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS as we know it today evolved over several thousandyears. During this timemany types of structures such as beams, arches, trussesandframeswereusedinconstructionforHundredoreventhousandofyearsbeforesatisfactorymethodsofanalysisweredevelopedforthem.

    While ancient engineers showed some understanding of structural behavior (asevidencedbytheirsuccessfulconstructionofbridges,cathedrals),realprogresswiththetheoryofstructuralanalysisoccurredonlyinthepast150years.

    TheEGYPTIANSandotherancientbuilderssurelyhadsomekindsofempiricalrulesdrawnfrompreviousexperiencesfordeterminingsizesofstructuralmembers.Thereis, However, NO EVIDENCE that they had developed any THEORY ofSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS. The Egyptian Imhotep built the great PYRAMID ofSaqqara, the Step Pyramid of Djoser Egypts first pyramid, built during the thirddynastyoftheoldkingdomincirca2630B.C.sometimesisreferredto

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    PostedinEngineering|TaggedAncientEgypt,BuildingDesign,Construction,History,ReinforcedConcrete,StructuralAnalysis,StructuralDesign,Structuralengineering|Leaveareply

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    HARDYCROSSMETHODStructuralAnalysisPostedonJanuary20,2012

    MypassionforStructuralEngineering,Ifocusedmysighttodelveintomanybooks forStructuralAnalysisandDesigncalculations, somostof the timegiven to me by God, I used to study and to research the history of thisinterestingmajorsubjectsincivilengineering

    1. StructuralReinforcedConcreteDesign2. StructuralSteelDesign3. TimberDesign

  • 4. EngineeringMechanics5. StrengthofMaterials(MechanicsofMaterials),6. TheoryofStructures7. Hydraulics8. TransportationEngineering9. SoilMechanicsandFoundationDesign

    10. DifferentialandIntegralCalculus11. Physics12. AnalyticGeometry13. PlaneTrigonometry14. AdvanceAlgebra.

    Havingalotofexperiencesinlife,andmypassionforstructuralengineering,Iwaschallenged to researchandstudycontinuouslyparticularly structuralengineering.Fortunately,Ihavecollectedandacquiredmanybooks,designcodesforcivilengineersvaluedinUSDollars,namely

    1. ACIManualofConcretePractice,2008AmericanConcreteInstitute2. ACIDesignhandbook,2004AmericanConcreteInstitute3. ACI 318Building Code Requirements for Structural concrete, 2011

    edition,4. DETAILINGMANUAL2004edition,5. PCIDesignHandbook,PrecastandPrestressedConcrete7thedition,6. CRSIDesignHandbook,2008edition,7. ASCE7StandardMinimumDesignLoadsforBuildingsandotherVerticalStructures,8. UniformBuildingCode(UBC),9. BritishSteelDesignersManual6thedition,

    10. AmericanSteelConstructionmanual13thedition,11. NationalStructuralCodeofthePhilippines2001edition,etc.12. Numerous Historic Books in Civil Engineering, e.g. Theory of

    Structures,ReinforcedConcrete,MechanicsofMaterials,MechanicsofEngineeringdated1750A.D.to1930A.D.

  • ACI2008MANUALOFCONCRETEPRACTICE

    ACI2008MANUALOFCONCRETEPRACTICE

    Actually,since1995,Istartedcollectingbooksandstudiedmostofthetimeifnoprojectstobesupervised.Inmyeagernesstoacquiremoreknowledge,I focusedmymindandsight to studyand research thestructuralanalysisand design calculationmethods tomakeworks easier for civil / structuralengineersandstructuraldesigners.

    I have a friend who has the desire in structural analysis and designcomputationsandconstruction,thisfriendofmineisnotreallyarecognizedStructuralEngineerbyProfessionalRegulationCommissionorbyPhilippineInstitute of Civil Engineers (PICE), but he is just a practicing engineerFabian,heusedtodesignsimplebuildings,heconstructedsomebuildingsinCatarmantown,Idoubtedthemethodofcalculationsheusedbecauseheuses thebalancecondition inconcretedesigns.Themethodheusedwaserroneousitshouldbeactualconditionoftheconcretecolumns.

    I had met a lot of people with different characters and personalities, theSCRUFFY, the CLEAN, the INCOMPLETE, the DEFENSIVE ones, theNONCHALANTandtheBRILLIANTones.Asmuchastherearedifferencesin peoples character, so is there, in theirworks and calculations.Also, tomention,throughsocialnetworkingIhaveacquiredcomputersoftware,e.g.Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets software for design, and adopted theirprocedures, methodology and style with some modification to suit mysatisfactionandmethodofanalysis.Further,throughsocialnetworkingIhadlearnedtodevelopSpreadsheetsformyanalysisanddesignsince2006upto present, I am self taught inMicrosoft Excel and had developed framesandbeamsanal