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  • Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071460691

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  • Reliability CenteredMaintenance (RCM)

    Implementation Made Simple

    Neil Bloom

    McGraw-Hill, Inc.New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London

    Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San JuanSeoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071460691

  • Copyright 2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the UnitedStates of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of thispublication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

    0-07-158918-X

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    DOI: 10.1036/0071460691

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071460691

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071460691

  • To my wife, friend, partner, and soul mate,Bernadette, who is indeed a saint

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  • vii

    Contents

    Preface xiiiAcknowledgments xix

    Chapter 1 Introduction to RCM 11.1 Uncovering the Fuzziness and Mystique of RCM 41.2 The Background of RCM 91.3 A No-Nonsense Approach to RCM 111.4 RCM as a Major Factor in the Bottom Line 12

    Chapter 2 Why RCM Has Historically Been So Difficult to Implement 152.1 Consultants 152.2 A White Elephant 162.3 Reasons for Failure 18

    2.3.1 Loss of In-House Control 182.3.2 An Incorrect Mix of Personnel Performing the Analysis 192.3.3 Unnecessary and Costly Administrative Burdens 202.3.4 Fundamental RCM Concepts Not Understood 212.3.5 Confusion Determining System Functions 212.3.6 Confusion Concerning System Boundaries and Interfaces 212.3.7 Divergent Expectations 232.3.8 Confusion Regarding Convention 242.3.9 Misunderstanding Hidden Failures and Redundancy 242.3.10 Misunderstanding Run-to-Failure 252.3.11 Inappropriate Component Classifications 252.3.12 Instruments Were Not Included as Part of the RCM Analysis 26

    Chapter 3 Fundamental RCM Concepts Explained,Some for the Very First Time:The Next Plateau 27

    3.1 The Three Phases of an RCM-Based Preventive Maintenance Program 303.2 The Three Cornerstones of RCM 323.3 Hidden Failures, Redundancy, and Critical Components 343.4 Testing Hidden Systems 45

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  • 3.5 The Missing Link: Potentially Critical Components 463.6 Commitment Components 503.7 Economic Components 513.8 The Canon Law of Run-to-Failure Components 523.9 The Integration of Preventive and Corrective Maintenance and the

    Distinction Between Potentially Critical and Run-to-Failure Components 573.9.1 An RTF CM versus a Critical CM: Which Takes Priority

    for Getting Worked First? 593.10 The Anatomy of a Disaster 613.11 A Deeper Look at Critical Components, Potentially Critical

    Components, and Hidden FailuresHow They All Fit Together 653.12 Finding the Anomalies 683.13 Failures Found During Operator Rounds 703.14 Redundant, Standby, and Backup Functions 703.15 Typical Examples of Component Classifications 733.16 Component Classification Hierarchy 733.17 The Defensive Strategies of a PM Program 753.18 Eliminating the Requirement for Identifying Boundaries

    and Interfaces 753.19 Functions and Functional Failures Are Identified

    at the Component Level, Not the System and Subsystem Level 773.20 The Quest for the Consequence of Failure 793.21 The COFA versus the FMEA 813.22 How Do You Know When Your Plant Is Reliable? 833.23 Chapter Summary 85

    Chapter 4 RCM Implementation: Preparation and Tools 894.1 Preparation 904.2 The Sequential Elements Needed for the Analysis 91

    4.2.1 A Simple but Comprehensive Alphanumeric Equipment I.D. Database 91

    4.2.2 Informational Resources 934.2.3 Establishing Convention 944.2.4 Specialized Workstations and Software 944.2.5 The COFA Excel Spreadsheet versus the FMEA 954.2.6 The PM Task Worksheet 1004.2.7 The Economic Evaluation Worksheet 102

    4.3 Chapter Summary 105

    Chapter 5 RCM Made Simple: Implementation Process 1075.1 Define Your Asset Reliability Strategy 1095.2 Understanding the RCM COFA Logic Tree, the Potentially

    Critical Guideline, and the Economically Significant Guideline 1125.3 Completing the COFA Worksheet in Conjunction with the

    COFA Logic Tree, the Potentially Critical Guideline,and the Economically Significant Guideline 1205.3.1 Describe the Component Functions 121

    viii Contents

  • Contents ix

    5.3.2 Describe the Functional Failures 1235.3.3 Describe the Dominant Component Failure Modes

    for Each Functional Failure 1245.3.4 Is the Occurrence of the Failure Mode Evident? 1245.3.5 Describe the System Effect for Each Failure Mode 1265.3.6 Describe the Consequence of Failure Based

    on the Asset Reliability Criteria You Selected 1295.3.7 Define the Component Classification 129

    5.4 RCM Serves as a Translation of the Design Objectives 1315.5 Companion Equipment 1335.6 The SAE Standard: Document JA1011 1345.7 A Real-Life Analysis: Averting a Potentially Devastating Plant

    Consequence 1355.8 Why Streamlined RCM Methods Are Not Recommended 141

    5.8.1 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) 1425.8.2 Reliability-Based Maintenance (RBM) 1425.8.3 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA)

    Based Maintenance 1425.8.4 80/20 Rule 142

    5.9 Chapter Summary 1435.10 RCM Made Difficult 147

    5.10.1 Determine System Boundaries 1485.10.2 Determine Subsystem Boundaries 1485.10.3 Determine Interfaces 1495.10.4 Determine Functions 1495.10.5 Determine the Functional Failures 1505.10.6 Determine Which Equipment Is Responsible

    for the Functional Failures 150

    Chapter 6 The PM Task Selection Process 1536.1 Understanding Preventive Maintenance Task Terminology 1546.2 Condition-Directed,Time-Directed, and Failure-Finding Tasks 1546.3 The PM Task Worksheet 1576.4 The PM Task Selection Logic Tree 1586.5 Why a Condition-Directed Task Is Preferred 1616.6 Determining the PM Task Frequency and Interval 162

    6.6.1 The Optimum Time to Establish a Reliability Program 1656.7 Is a Design Change Recommended? 1666.8 Completing a Typical PM Task Worksheet 1676.9 Institute Technical Restraints 168

    6.10 A Sampling Strategy 1696.11 Common Mode Failures 1716.12 Different Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Techniques 172

    6.12.1 Vibration Monitoring and Analysis 1726.12.2 Acoustic Monitoring 1736.12.3 Thermography or Infrared Monitoring 1736.12.4 Oil Sampling and Analysis 1736.12.5 X-ray or Radiography Inspection 1736.12.6 Magnetic Particle Inspection 174

  • 6.12.7 Eddy Current Testing 1746.12.8 Ultrasonic Testing 1746.12.9 Liquid Penetrant 1746.12.10 Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) 1746.12.11 Boroscope