Religious Freedom Restoration Act

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Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 aka Public Law No: 103-141. Attached are the a list of House Sponsors and Senate votes.

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<ul><li><p> H. R. 1308 </p><p>One Hundred Third Congress of the United States of America </p><p>AT THE FIRST SESSION </p><p>Begun and held at the City of Washington on Tuesday, the fifth day of January, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-three </p><p>An Act To protect the free exercise of religion. </p><p>Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, </p><p>SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. </p><p>This Act may be cited as the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993. </p><p>SEC. 2. CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS AND DECLARATION OF PURPOSES. (a) FINDINGS.The Congress finds that (1) the framers of the Constitution, recognizing free exercise of religion as an unalienable right, secured its protection in the First Amendment to the Constitution; (2) laws neutral toward religion may burden religious exercise as surely as laws intended to interfere with religious exercise; (3) governments should not substantially burden religious exercise without compelling justification; (4) in Employment Division v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990) the Supreme Court virtually eliminated the requirement that the government justify burdens on religious exercise imposed by laws neutral toward religion; and (5) the compelling interest test as set forth in prior Federal court rulings is a workable test for striking sensible balances between religious liberty and competing prior governmental interests. (b) PURPOSES.The purposes of this Act are (1) to restore the compelling interest test as set forth in Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398 (1963) and Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205 (1972) and to guarantee its application in all cases where free exercise of religion is substantially burdened; and (2) to provide a claim or defense to persons whose religious exercise is substantially burdened by government. SEC. 3. FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION PROTECTED. </p><p>(a) IN GENERAL.Government shall not substantially burden a persons exercise of religion even if the burden results from a rule of general applicability, except as provided in subsection (b). (b) EXCEPTION.Government may substantially burden a persons exercise of religion only if it demonstrates that application of the burden to the person </p><p>15:39 Nov 04, 1993 VerDate 01-JUL-93 Jkt 059200 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 6655 Sfmt 6501 E:\BILLS\H1308.ENR bend06 </p></li><li><p>H. R. 13082 </p><p>(1) is in furtherance of a compelling governmental interest; and (2) is the least restrictive means of furthering that compelling governmental interest. </p><p>(c) JUDICIAL RELIEF.A person whose religious exercise has been burdened in violation of this section may assert that violation as a claim or defense in a judicial proceeding and obtain appropriate relief against a government. Standing to assert a claim or defense under this section shall be governed by the general rules of standing under article III of the Constitution. SEC. 4. ATTORNEYS FEES. </p><p>(a) JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS.Section 722 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1988) is amended by inserting the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, before or title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (b) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS.Section 504(b)(1)(C) of title 5, United States Code, is amended </p><p>(1) by striking and at the end of clause (ii); (2) by striking the semicolon at the end of clause (iii) and inserting , and; and (3) by inserting (iv) the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993; after clause (iii). SEC. 5. DEFINITIONS. </p><p>As used in this Act (1) the term government includes a branch, department, agency, instrumentality, and official (or other person acting under color of law) of the United States, a State, or a subdivi-sion of a State; (2) the term State includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and each territory and possession of the United States; (3) the term demonstrates means meets the burdens of going forward with the evidence and of persuasion; and (4) the term exercise of religion means the exercise of religion under the First Amendment to the Constitution. SEC. 6. APPLICABILITY. </p><p>(a) IN GENERAL.This Act applies to all Federal and State law, and the implementation of that law, whether statutory or otherwise, and whether adopted before or after the enactment of this Act. (b) RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.Federal statutory law adopted after the date of the enactment of this Act is subject to this Act unless such law explicitly excludes such application by reference to this Act. (c) RELIGIOUS BELIEF UNAFFECTED.Nothing in this Act shall be construed to authorize any government to burden any religious belief. SEC. 7. ESTABLISHMENT CLAUSE UNAFFECTED. </p><p>Nothing in this Act shall be construed to affect, interpret, or in any way address that portion of the First Amendment prohibiting laws respecting the establishment of religion (referred to in this section as the Establishment Clause). Granting government funding, benefits, or exemptions, to the extent permissible under the Establishment Clause, shall not constitute a violation of this </p><p>15:39 Nov 04, 1993 VerDate 01-JUL-93 Jkt 059200 PO 00000 Frm 00002 Fmt 6655 Sfmt 6501 E:\BILLS\H1308.ENR bend06 </p></li><li><p>H. R. 13083 </p><p>Act. As used in this section, the term granting, used with respect to government funding, benefits, or exemptions, does not include the denial of government funding, benefits, or exemptions. </p><p>Speaker of the House of Representatives. </p><p>Vice President of the United States and President of the Senate. </p><p>15:39 Nov 04, 1993 VerDate 01-JUL-93 Jkt 059200 PO 00000 Frm 00003 Fmt 6655 Sfmt 6501 E:\BILLS\H1308.ENR bend06 </p></li><li><p>Subject Policy Area:Civil Rights and Liberties, Minority Issues</p><p>View subjects</p><p>All Bill Information (Except Text) for H.R.1308 -Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993103rd Congress (1993-1994)</p><p>Back to this bill</p><p>Introduced Passed House Passed Senate</p><p>Resolving Differences To President Became Law</p><p>Sponsor: Rep. Schumer, Charles E. [D-NY-9] (Introduced 03/11/1993)</p><p>Committees: House - Judiciary</p><p>Committee Reports: H.Rept 103-88 Part 1</p><p>Latest Action: 11/16/1993 Became Public Law No: 103-141.</p><p>Major Recorded Votes: 10/27/1993 : Passed Senate</p><p>Tracker:</p><p>LAW</p><p>There are 6 versions of this bill. View text</p><p>Jump to: Summary | Major Actions | All Actions | Titles | Subjects | Cosponsors | Committees | Related Bills</p><p>Summary (2)</p><p>There are 2 summaries for this bill. View summaries</p><p>Shown Here:Passed Senate amended (10/27/1993)</p><p>Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 - Prohibits any agency, department, or official of the United States or any Stat(the government) from substantially burdening a person's exercise of religion even if the burden results from a rule of genapplicability, except that the government may burden a person's exercise of religion only if it demonstrates that applicationthe burden to the person: (1) furthers a compelling governmental interest; and (2) is the least restrictive means of furtherinthat compelling governmental interest. </p><p>Sets forth provisions pertaining to judicial relief, attorney's fees, and applicability. </p><p>Page 1 of 15All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of...</p><p>3/30/2015https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info</p></li><li><p>Declares that: (1) nothing in this Act shall be construed to interpret the clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution prohibiting the establishment of religion; (2) the granting of government funding, benefits, or exemptions, to the extent permissible under that clause, shall not constitute a violation of this Act; and (3) as used in this Act, "granting" does not incthe denial of government funding, benefits, or exemptions.</p><p>Major Actions (8)</p><p>Date</p><p>11/16/1993 Became Public Law No: 103-141. </p><p>11/16/1993 Signed by President. </p><p>11/05/1993 Presented to President. </p><p>11/03/1993 Resolving differences -- House actions: On motion that the House agree to the Senate amendment Agreed to without objection.(consideration: CR H8713-8715) </p><p>10/27/1993 Passed/agreed to in Senate: Passed Senate in lieu of S. 578 with an amendment by Yea-Nay Vote. 97-3. Record Vote No: 331. </p><p>05/11/1993 Passed/agreed to in House: On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill Agreed to by voice vote. </p><p>05/11/1993 Reported by the Committee on Judiciary. H. Rept. 103-88. </p><p>03/11/1993 Introduced in House </p><p>All Actions, Including Floor Amendments (26)</p><p>Date Chamber</p><p>11/16/1993 Became Public Law No: 103-141. </p><p>11/16/1993 Signed by President. </p><p>11/05/1993 House Presented to President. Action By: House of Representatives </p><p>Page 2 of 15All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of...</p><p>3/30/2015https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info</p></li><li><p>Date Chamber</p><p>11/03/1993-1:10pm House Motion to reconsider laid on the table Agreed to without objection. Type of Action: Resolving DifferencesAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>11/03/1993-1:10pm House On motion that the House agree to the Senate amendment Agreed to without objection. (consideration: CR H8713-8715) Type of Action: Resolving DifferencesAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>11/03/1993-1:04pm House Mr. Brooks asked unanimous consent that the House agree to the Senate amendment. Type of Action: Resolving DifferencesAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>10/27/1993 Senate Message on Senate action sent to the House. Type of Action: Resolving DifferencesAction By: Senate </p><p>10/27/1993 Senate Passed Senate in lieu of S. 578 with an amendment by Yea-Nay Vote. 97-3. Record Vote No: 331. Type of Action: Floor ConsiderationAction By: Senate </p><p>10/27/1993 Senate Senate struck all after the Enacting Clause and substituted the language of S. 578 amended. Type of Action: Floor ConsiderationAction By: Senate </p><p>10/27/1993 Senate Measure laid before Senate by unanimous consent. (consideration: CR S14470-14471) Type of Action: Floor ConsiderationAction By: Senate </p><p>05/13/1993 Senate Received in the Senate. Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 64. Type of Action: CalendarsAction By: Senate </p><p>05/11/1993-1:31pm House Motion to reconsider laid on the table Agreed to without objection. Type of Action: Floor ConsiderationAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>05/11/1993-1:31pm House On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill Agreed to by voice vote. Type of Action: Floor ConsiderationAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>Page 3 of 15All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of...</p><p>3/30/2015https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info</p></li><li><p>Date Chamber</p><p>05/11/1993-12:49pm House DEBATE - The House proceeded with forty minutes of debate. Type of Action: Floor ConsiderationAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>05/11/1993-12:49pm House Considered under suspension of the rules. (consideration: CR H2356-2363) Type of Action: Floor ConsiderationAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>05/11/1993-12:49pm House Mr. Brooks moved to suspend the rules and pass the bill. Type of Action: Floor ConsiderationAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>05/11/1993 House Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 43. Type of Action: CalendarsAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>05/11/1993 House Reported by the Committee on Judiciary. H. Rept. 103-88. Type of Action: Committee ConsiderationAction By: House Judiciary </p><p>03/24/1993 House Ordered to be Reported. Type of Action: Committee ConsiderationAction By: House Judiciary </p><p>03/24/1993 House Committee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held. Type of Action: Committee ConsiderationAction By: House Judiciary </p><p>03/17/1993 House Forwarded by Subcommittee to Full Committee. Type of Action: Committee ConsiderationAction By: House Judiciary Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights </p><p>03/17/1993 House Subcommittee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held. Type of Action: Committee ConsiderationAction By: House Judiciary Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights </p><p>03/16/1993 House Referred to the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights. Type of Action: Committee ConsiderationAction By: House Judiciary </p><p>03/11/1993 House Referred to the House Committee on Judiciary. Type of Action: Introduction and ReferralAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>Page 4 of 15All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of...</p><p>3/30/2015https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info</p></li><li><p>Subject Policy Area:Civil Rights and Liberties, Minority Issues</p><p>Legislative analysts closely examine each bill and resolution to assign a policy area term that best </p><p>Actions and defenses</p><p>Administrative remedies</p><p>Civil Rights and Liberties, Minority Issues</p><p>Government spending</p><p>Judicial review of administrative acts</p><p>Law</p><p>Legal fees</p><p>Date Chamber</p><p>03/11/1993 House Referred to the House Committee on Judiciary. Type of Action: Introduction and ReferralAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>03/11/1993 House Introduced in House Type of Action: Introduction and ReferralAction By: House of Representatives </p><p>Titles (5)</p><p>Short Titles - House of Representatives</p><p>Short Titles as Introduced:Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993</p><p>Short Titles - Senate</p><p>Short Titles as Passed Senate:Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993</p><p>Official Titles - House of Representatives</p><p>Official Title as Introduced:To protect the free exercise of religion.</p><p>Popular Titles:Religious Freedom Restoration Act (Identified by CRS) </p><p>Short Titles:Short Titles as Enacted:Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993</p><p>Official Titles:</p><p>Subjects (9)</p><p>Page 5 of 15All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of...</p><p>3/30/2015https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info</p></li><li><p>describes the entire measure. There are 33 policy area terms which span across all legislation from 1973 to the present. </p><p>Legislative subject terms like those listed to the right thoroughly describe a measure's substance and effects. There are approximately 1,000 issue-oriented, entity, and geographic terms.</p><p>Religion</p><p>Religious liberty</p><p>Cosponsors (170)</p><p>* = Original cosponsor</p><p>Cosponsor Date Cosponsored</p><p>Rep. Cox, Christopher [R-CA-47]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Nadler, Jerrold [D-NY-8]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Maloney, Carolyn B. [D-NY-14]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Gilman, Benjamin A. [R-NY-20]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Moran, James P. [D-VA-8]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Lewis, John [D-GA-5]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Woolsey, Lynn C. [D-CA-6]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Washington, Craig A. [D-TX-18]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Cooper, Jim [D-TN-4]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Page 6 of 15All Info - H.R.1308 - 103rd Congress (1993-1994): Religious Freedom Restoration Act of...</p><p>3/30/2015https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308/all-info</p></li><li><p>Cosponsor Date Cosponsored</p><p>Rep. Ackerman, Gary L. [D-NY-5]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Cardin, Benjamin L. [D-MD-3]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Yates, Sidney R. [D-IL-9]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Meek, Carrie P. [D-FL-17]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Kopetski, Mike [D-OR-5]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Ramstad, Jim [R-MN-3]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Deutsch, Peter [D-FL-20]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Price, David E. [D-NC-4]* 03/11/1993</p><p>Rep. Swift, Al [D-WA...</p></li></ul>

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