renaissance and reformation
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AND THE REFORMATION
Goals and Objectives: Upon completion students should be able to:
1.Explain how political and economic conditions,resources, geographic locations and cultures have contributed to cooperation and conflict.
2.Describe the changes in Europe as a result of the early Renaissance.
Renaissance the period from 1450-1600 called the Renaissance, which means rebirth. Italy had three things that fostered the Renaissance.
1. Thriving cities2. A wealthy merchant class3. Classical heritage of Greece and Rome
The bubonic plague (1300’s) killed as many as 60% in some towns.
This cut back the number of laborers and thus increased the wages of those that remained.
Art was pursued by many of the wealthy.
1. Members of the wealthy class turned to controlling the
government by loaning money to the different leaders of the
2. One family, the Medici, controlled Florence, not themselves but by giving money to the ruling council.
3. These ruling merchants supported the arts, which allowed a
rebirth of the classics.
The artists supported by the wealthy men, drew on the classic remains of the ancient Greek and Roman influences that surrounded the cities of Italy.
What new cultural features have emerged in the U.S. recently? Why have they grown?
What are the cultural centers of the U.S. today? Why are they the centers?
Are there values that could be categorized as uniquely American?
1. Study of the classics turned to Humanism, which focused on human potential and achievements.
2. Humanists encouraged and supported the study of classical educations such as history, literature, philosophy; known as the humanities.
Religious tradition focused on church ideas such a sacrifice and living in ordinary ways, focusing on being righteous.
The humanist in Italy enjoyed material luxuries, fine music, and tasty foods.
Secularism-worldly and concerned with the here and now.
Some church leaders became worldly by living in beautiful mansions, had lavish banquets and wore fine clothing.
Even popes of the Roman Catholic church became patrons of the arts, by buying a great deal of art to beautify the churches.
A renaissance man was one who strove to master all areas of study, they were educated and universal in abilities.
They mastered many different things and were witty
They studied the classics and knew literature and poetry.
Author of the CourtierLeonardo da Vinci
The Renaissance woman knew the classics and was charming.
She would not seek fame of her abilities. Most women had no power, however one lady of
a ruling family married the ruler of another city-state. Isabella D’Este brought many different artists into her court thus promoting the spread of and acceptance of the art collection she acquired.
Medieval artists used religious items to paint, whereas the artists of the renaissance started painting individuals (portraits)
The technique of perspective has three dimensions on a flat surface. Invented by architect: Brunelleschi
Showing images in the true form that they appear in rather than trying to change them for perfect images.
Michelangelo painted realistic images and Donatello sculpted to show natural postures and personality.
Michelangelo-Sistine Chapel -Raphael- School of Athens
Renaissance writers did not write in the classical Latin, however he or she wrote in vernacular- his or her own language.
They wrote for self-expression or to portray the individuality of their subjects.
Music during the Middle Ages was mostly sacred and used only for worship.
Gregorian chants (Middle Ages) were one melody, unaccompanied singing (monophonic) of praise; usually sung by monks & priests during worship.
Music became secular (non-sacred) during the Renaissance and polyphony (more than one melodic line) was invented (School of Notre Dame); madrigals were developed.
Machiavelli advises rulers, by writing a political guidebook, The Prince.
He tells how a ruler can gain power and then maintain that power.
stated that most people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt.
To keep power a leader must be strong like lion and shrewd like fox. He wasn’t concerned with what is morally right, but what is politically effective.
“Absolute power corrupts absolutely!”
Is Machiavelli correct??
Women usually wrote about personal subjects, not politics.
Vittoria Colonna helped publish The Courtier.
Goals and Objectives: Upon completion, students should:
1.Explain the main reasons why the Renaissance spread to Northern. Europe.
2.Identify key contributors to the Northern Renaissance.
3.Explain the term “cultural diffusion” while providing examples.
Flanders became the center of the Northern Renaissance.
Population growth rebounded from the years of the plague and the 100 years war between France and England ended.
The rulers of England and France bought paintings of the artists to place in their palaces. (patrons)
The ideas and methods of the renaissance blended with the culture of the Northern Europeans and became uniquely Northern European.
Humanists looked at social reform based on Christian values.
Italy had a civil war and many of the writers and artists of Italy traveled north to get out of harm’s way. Thus spreading the classics to northern Europe.
The German painters took to painting in a style known as realism. Painting scenes or events as they truly were. He painted the monarchs of England.
Flemish painters used oil to display their individuality and worldly pleasures. Hans Holbein-
Henry VIII Jan Van Eyck- The WeddingAlbrecht Durer-The Adoration of the Magi
Christian humanists looked at the church believing it had failed to inspire people to live a Christian life.
Christian humanists tried to reform society including promoting the education of women.
Who are the people today who could be considered reformers?
What areas of reform do you see taking place today?
Who are the most influential people today in American society? How have they gained such influence?
Thomas More wrote a book entitled Utopia looking for a perfect world full of peace loving people in a land where greed, corruption, war and crime had been weeded out.
Many women could not read or write, Christine de Pizan was an exception.
She wrote in French, writing many books including short stories, biographies and manuals on military techniques.
She questioned why boys and girls were treated differently.
Considered the greatest playwright ever.
He used the classics as an inspiration.
Used the human soul to write about human flaws.
Chinese inventor Bi -Sheng invented a movable type but it was impractical.
Johan Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1440 in Germany.
This was used to produce bibles, books and music. pamphlets.
New artistic ideas and techniques were practiced. The Church was challenged by secular ideas There was a rise of humanism Vernacularism led to more languages being
written A respect for the classics was restored. Literacy increased because of more available
books. Christian humanism spread in the north.
Goals and Objectives: Upon completion, students should:
1.Explain the reasons for the reformation:
2.Describe the impacts of the reformation.
3.Summarize the ways in which Europe changed as a result of the reformation.
4.Summarize the Elizabethan age.
Causes of the Reformation
Church Authority Challenged Secularism, individualism of Renaissance challenge Rulers challenge Church’s power Printing press spreads secular ideas Northern merchants resent paying church
Criticisms of the Catholic Church
• Corrupt leaders, extravagant popes• Poorly educated priests
• John Wycliffe and Jan Hus stress Bible’s authority over clergy’s• Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More are
vocal critics of the Church• Reading religious works, Europeans form
own opinions about Church
The “95 Theses” •Martin Luther protests Friar Johann Tetzel’s selling of indulgences •Indulgence—a pardon releasing a person from penalty for a sin •In 1517 Luther posts his 95 Theses attacking “pardon-merchants” •Luther’s theses circulate throughout Germany •Luther launches the Reformation—a movement for religious reform• Reformation rejects pope’s authority
Luther’s Teachings• People can win salvation by good works
and faith• Christian teachings must be based on the
Bible, not the pope• All people with faith are equal, can
interpret Bible without priests
What traditional beliefs, customs, practices or laws are challenged in American society today?
What methods are being used to challenge these traditions?
The Pope’s Threat• Pope Leo X issues decree
threatening to excommunicate Luther (1520)
• Luther’s rights of Church membership are taken away
• Luther refuses to take back his statements and is excommunicated
The Emperor’s Opposition• Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor • He issues Edict of Worms (1521), declaring Luther a heretic• Luther and followers begin a separate religious group—Lutherans The Peasants’ Revolt• Inspired by Reformation, German peasants seek end to serfdom (1524)• Princes crush revolt; about 100,000 people die
Germany at War• Some princes side with Luther, become known as Protestants• Charles V fails to return rebellious princes to
Catholic Church• Peace of Augsburg (1555)—each prince can
decide religion of his state
The Peasants’ Revolt• Inspired by Reformation, German peasants seek end to serfdom (1524).• Princes crush revolt; about 100,000 people die.
Henry VIII Wants a Son
• Henry has only daughter, needs male heir to rule England.
• Henry wants a divorce; Pope refuses to annul—
invalidate- first marriage to Catherine of
Aragon of Spain.
The Reformation Parliament
• Parliament passes laws ending pope’s power in
England.• Henry remarries,
becomes official head of England’s
Church.• Thomas More refuses to
go against Catholic Church
and is beheaded by Henry.
Thomas More spoke out against Henry VIII in 1534 and was arrested and executed.
The Act of Supremacy stated that England’s citizens must renounce the Pope’s authority and to accept Henry as the official leader of the Church of England or Anglican Church.
Henry died in 1547Henry>>>Edward
VI>>>Mary>>>>Elizabeth Henry VIII just 9 years old Catherine’s daughter Anne Boleyn’s
(Henry’s 2nd wife) died in 1547 ruled 6 years restored Catholicism daughter
The period from 1558-1603 is when Elizabeth 1st ruled England.
As Queen, she was a major patron of the arts in supporting poetry and music as well as literature.
Elizabeth I Faces Other Challenges• Some Protestants and Catholics oppose
Elizabeth• Phillip II, Catholic King of Spain, threatens England…resulted in battle with the
Armada…Sir Francis Drake.• Elizabeth’s need for money brings conflict
In 1559 Parliament officially set up the Anglican Church, making her the head of the church.
Elizabeth created reforms that appealed to both Catholics and Protestants, many catholic traditions continued but priests could marry.
Upon completion, students should:1.Identify the specific examples of
protestant growth in Europe.2.Describe the ways in which the
Catholic church responded to protestant expansion.
3.Summarize the reforms of the church
Religious theologian. Founder of Calvinist thought, ruler of Geneva.
His ideas would spread through Europe; One of the more powerful Christian reformers.
The idea that God has already decided who is to be saved, your actions really don’t matter (predestination or Fate).
More than just religious scholar, a leader as well.
Calvin ruled Geneva as a theocracy (a government based on religious laws)
Anyone who did not follow his rules were either banished or executed.
In Scotland Calvinism spread, followers were known as Presbyterians.
In France, Calvinists followers were called Huguenots.
St. Ignatius of Loyola
In 1522 he wrote Spiritual Exercises
Daily plan for meditation, prayer and study
Over time he gathered followers
In 1540 his followers were named an official religious order by the Pope, called Jesuits.
The “Jesuits” spread throughout Europe They created rigorous but EXCELLENT
schools Concentrated equally on classical works and
theology Spread Catholicism through Europe
Held off Protestant advancement in Poland and Southern Germany
Example of a Jesuit, private school in Miami: Belen Jesuit Preparatory School.
Pope Paul III Led the reformation
Reformation inside the Catholic Church called the Council of Trent.
The Church’s interpretation of the Bible was final.
You need faith AND good works to get into Heaven
Indulgences were valid expression of faith, but false purchase of them was banned
Protestant churches flourished Formation of church schools and universities Church political authority declined in Europe
as monarchs and states gained power. Roots of the Enlightenment were formed as
people began to question other ideas long held by the Catholic church.